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Area of study 2

Area of study 2

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Area of study 2

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  1. Area of study 2

  2. General musical words • Tempo - speed • Dynamics – louds and softs • Texture - way the layers and parts work together

  3. Indian classical music • Raga - • Indian scale (represents different time of day/mood etc); melody; sitar (indian guitar) sometimes pitch bends the notes • Improvise on notes of scale • Tala – • Indian rhythmic cycle; tabla (indian drum) • Drone – • Played on tanpura, throughout piece • Polyphonic texture (many layers weaving in and out of each other)

  4. Serialism • Atonal (no sense of key) • Melody is very disjunct (leaps around a lot) • Chromatic (music often moves by semitones (very next door notes)) • Uses all 12 notes in a tone row • Composer puts all 12 notes in a certain order called the prime order • They may then be played backwards (retrograde), upside down (inversion) or backwards and upside down (retrograde inversion) • Composer: Webern

  5. Blues/Jazz • Rhythm section: bass, drum kit, piano • Front line: trumpet, sax, trombone, clarinet • Other: guitar (blues) • Singers sing the Blues • 12 bar blues • Improvisation • Syncopated (off beat) rhythms • Walking bass • Blues notes • Swing rhythms (not straight, dotted) • Pitch bends on notes • Call and response • Comping – piano playing on every beat

  6. Voices • High woman soprano • Low woman alto • High man tenor • Low man bass • Trained (classical) /untrained (folk or blues etc) • Small or big range? • Bending notes • Sliding (glissando) • Pure sound or scratchy/raspy/breathy • Improvising? • Look at notes from trial • What does the voice sound like? • How does it fit with the other parts? • Vibrato (wobble on voice)

  7. Plainsong (plainchant) • Monophonic (one line of music) • Unison (all sing together) • Monks/all male • Sung in Latin • Modal (in the middle of major/minor) • Unaccompanied (a cappella) • Music is dictated by the rhythm of the words (no bar lines etc) • Small range • Music normally moves by step and small leap • Often sung in church or building with large acoustic (sounds like it’s echoing )

  8. Folk song • Think ‘Salley Gardens’ from trial and look at notes from there too • Music for the people • Small range • Often arranged in 4 lines • Lines 1,2 and 4 normally the same, 3 different • May sound modal or use pentatonic (5 note scale) • Songs about people’s day to day life e.g in the fields or canals etc • May be asked about the style of singing (normally untrained etc)

  9. Musical form • Binary AB 2 sections both different • Ternary ABA 3 sections where A returns at the end again • Rondo ABACA 5 or more sections where A keeps returning with different fillings in between • Verse and chorus

  10. Features of the Baroque Period • 1600-1750 • Harpsichord • Primary chords • High trumpet • Flute, oboe • Medium sized orchestra • Based around the strings • Continuo (repeated bass line played on harpsichord, organ, cello) • Terraced dynamics (loud then soft) • Ornamentation • Bach, Handel

  11. Features of the Classical period • Clarinet and piano • Small orchestra • Based around strings • Clear cadences • Balanced phrases • Primary harmony • Musical structures such as Rondo form • Mozart, Beethoven, Haydn • Ornamentation