The At-Risk Student: Special Education Services: Looking deeper: accommodations and supports Good teaching
Tier 2: Behavior/Academic Interventions • Strategies or techniques • designed to teach a new skill • build fluency in a skill • to encourage application of a skill a student has to a new situation
Who needs Tier 2? • Student “at risk” for academic or behavior concerns • Universal supports/good teaching is not enough • Monitoring needed • Catch ‘em before a crisis
Tier 2 Key concepts: • Preventative • Targeted (but not individualized) • Improved structure, predictability and routine • Generalizable to new situations • Positive • Supports classroom teacher
Tier 2 builds on your effective classroom practices: • Clearly defined expectations and rules • Clearly defined procedures and routines • Continuum of strategies • Acknowledge appropriate responses • Respond to inappropriate responses • Active supervision • Multiple opportunities to respond Choices • Opportunities for success
Tier 2 Examples: • Check in/Check out • Small group social skill building • Group counseling • Mentoring programs
Check-in Check-out (CICO) • Remember “Anderson Elementary”? • Be safe • Be responsible • Be respectful
Major Features of Targeted Interventions • Intervention is continuously available • Very low effort by teachers • Consistent with school-wide expectations • Implemented by all staff/faculty in a school • Home/school linkage • Flexible intervention based on assessment • Student chooses to participate
BEP Plan Weekly BEP Meeting 9 Week Graph Sent Morning Check-In Program Update Home Check-In EXIT Afternoon Check-out Check-in Check-out Cycle Class Check out TeacherChecks Class Check in
CICO Record Name: ____________________________ Date: ______________ 0 = Need work, 1 = “OK” 2 = Nice Job Comments:
HAWK Report Date ________ Student _______________Teacher___________________
Why does CICO work? • Improved structure • Prompts throughout the day for correct behavior. • Links student with at least one positive adult. • Student chooses to participate. • Student is “set up for success” • First contact each morning is positive. • First contact each period is positive, and sets up successful behavioral momentum. • Increase in contingent feedback • Feedback occurs more often. • Feedback is tied to student behavior. • Inappropriate behavior is less likely to be ignored or rewarded.
Why does CICO Work? • Program can be applied in all supervised school locations • Elevated reward for appropriate behavior • Adult and peer attention delivered each target period • Adult attention (and tangible) delivered at end of day • Linking school and home support • Provide format for positive student/parent contact • Program is organized to morph into a self-management system • Increased options for making choices • Increased ability to self-monitor performance/progress
Logistics for Setting up a CICO program • Faculty and staff commitment • Is problem behavior a major concern? • Are staff willing to commit 5 min per day? • Is CICO a reasonable option for us? • More than 5 students need extra support • CICO is designed to work with 10-12% of kids in a school • CICO typically “works” with 67% of students. • CICO does NOT replace need for individualized supports.
Logistics for Setting up a CICO program • School-wide PBS in place • School-wide expectations defined and taught • Reward system operating • Clear and consistent consequences for problem behavior • Process for identifying a student who may be appropriate for CICO • Student is not responding to SWPBS expectations • Student finds adult attention rewarding • Student is NOT in crisis.
Logistics for Setting up a CICO program • Daily CICO progress report card • Same expectations for all • Common schedule • All staff taught rules for accepting, completing and returning the card. • Home report process • Can be same as progress card • Can be a unique reporting form
CICO Home Report Name: _____________________________ Date: _____________ ______ I met my goal today ______ I had a hard day One thing I did really well today was:_______________________ Something I will work on tomorrow is: _______________________ Comments: Parent/Guardian Signature: ________________________________________________________ Comments:
Logistics for Setting up a CICO program • Trading menu • Reward for collecting and turning in daily progress card • Reward for meeting daily goal • Exchange system for points earned • Collecting, summarizing and using data • Daily updates • Weekly review by team • Refer for tier 3 if necessary 28
At the top of the triangle… “Level 3” Intensive supports (5%) Individualized, targeted supports Functional Behavior Assessment Behavior Support Plan
You can see a lot by looking~yogi berra • http://www.challengingbehavior.org/explore/pbs/case_studies.htm • Video 1: What do you see?
FromFunctional Behavior Assessment (FBA) toPositiveBehavior Support Plan Featuring… a little guy named “Brendan”
Steps of an FBA to lead to PBSP: • Describe and verify the seriousness of the problem • Refine the definition of the problem behavior • Collect information on the possible functions of the problem behavior • Analyze the information • Generate an hypothesis about the function of the problem behavior • Test the hypothesis • Develop a plan
Who’s involved? • Informal FBA: • Teachers and staff • Indirect/Simple FBA: • Teachers/staff and School Specialist • Complex FBA: • Teachers/staff, School Specialist and Behavior Specialist • Always with Parental Consent!
When do we need to conduct an FBA? • IEP team decision • Manifestation of a student’s disability • When student is referred to law enforcement • When a student is removed from his/her current placement • Weapons violation • Drug possession/use • Bodily injury • Suspension without manifestation of disability
Describe and verify the seriousness of the problem • http://www.challengingbehavior.org/explore/pbs/case_studies.htm • Getting started: • Brendan’s Functional Assessment interview
Refine the definition of the problem behavior • Brendan is aggressive • Clarify! • Brendan misbehaves in public • Clarify! So Grandma can see it!
Collect information on the possible functions of the problem behavior • Brendan’s observation cards • http://www.challengingbehavior.org/explore/pbs/case_studies.htm
“What is he doing THAT for?” • Change our focus from what to why • “WHY does the child need to do this?” • Escape/avoid • Attention/access • Combination! • Communication • All behavior serves a purpose!
And after we know “WHY”… • We look at replacing the inappropriate behavior with a more suitable behavior that serves the same function (or results in the same outcome) as the problem behavior
Analyze the information • Generate an hypothesis about the function of the problem behavior • Brendan’s hypothesis statements http://www.challengingbehavior.org/explore/pbs/case_studies.htm
Why should Brendan change his behavior? • students will change the inappropriate behavior only when it is clear to them that a different response will more effectively and efficiently accomplish the same thing!
Test the hypothesis • Develop a plan • Steps to Developing and Implementing a Behavior Support Plan
Brendan’s behavior support plan • Review and revise as needed • http://www.challengingbehavior.org/explore/pbs/case_studies.htm
Informal…Case Study: "Blue Ink Line" • The Incident • Background Information
Remember: “An ounce of prevention is…” • What would be your “Ten Commandments” of managing a crisis?
Your Task • Read the Incident • No FBA yet: act fast! • Think about your immediate intervention; • How would you ensure physical safety? • How would you attend to the emotional well-being of those most centrally involved? • How would you return the setting to order and peace?
Ensuring Physical Safety: • Preventing a crisis: • An ounce of prevention… • Teacher tension can often make it worse • Always remain calm • Lower your voice • Slow your rate of speech • Arrange your environment to eliminate risk
Give the student space • Be aware of your body stance • Dress in a manner that minimizes injury risk • Remind students of consequences of misbehavior • Allow verbal venting • Ignore irrelevant comments. Redirect student to the problem at hand
Provide choices • Set limits • Use physical restraint as a last resort • Once the situation is calm, use the incident to teach alternative appropriate ways to deal with aggression.
Long-Term Intervention • Make a decision as to whether to act further • Do you need to promote a lasting, positive behavior change? • Try this: role play the FBA interview
Steps to Long-Term Intervention: an Informal FBA • Assess the problem: • What’s the behavior you want to target? • What are the antecedents? Consequences? Settings? • When/where is the behavior most likely to occur? When/where is it least likely? • What information can you gather from the family?
Formulate objectives of intervention • What is your team’s hypothesis? • When this happens (antecedent)____, Celia does this (behavior)___, in order to (get or avoid/function) this___, and we should do this ______. • Plan an effective intervention • Implement the intervention • Evaluate the results, revise plan if needed.
Why use visual strategies? • To help prevent problem behavior before it starts • To support and increase communication • To remind • They’re always there • Help kids know exactly what you expect • Teach routine • Work well with spoken/sign language • Just another cue!
What is a Social Story? • A short story – defined by specific characteristics • Describes a situation, concept, or social skill • Uses a format that is meaningful for people with ASD or other developmental disabilities.
What is a Social Story? • Goals: • renewed sensitivity of others to the experience of the person with ASD (or other disabilities), • Helps to develop “social cognition”
Who Writes Social Stories? • Social Stories are written by people who work and/or live with people with ASD or other disabilities. • Some prewritten stories exist