Unions • Why Unions---Wages/Hours/working Conditions/workers rights • “Labor was a commodity to be bought like any other, cheaply as possible…employers ceased to think of workers as people”
Unions • The Unions came from a series of problems • No long term employment guarantees • Long work days/weeks • Terrible working conditions---between 1880-1900 5 deaths per day. • Business Cycle • Trends: immigrants, women, and children greatly expanded the work force. Machines replaced people. Large bureaucratic corporations dominated the American Economy. The development of national and international markets for their goods.
The American Federation of Labor • The NLU and Knights wanted OBU • 1886 AFL Founded by Samuel Gompers with a new approach: Unions should work within the existing system, gaining and improving working conditions by bargaining with their employers. • They would push for “closed shops” • Collective Bargaining • Strike as a final resort • AFL set up rules to its members (locals) • Training for their skills. No blacks, women or recent immigrants could be members • Regular Dues---in case of strikes • 200,000 in 1886 1,750,000 in 1920 • This left the unskilled worker at risk.
America Moves to the City As the cities grew between 1870 and 1900, how did they change with regard to buildings, transportation, and accessibility? What problems emerged?
Cities • 1870-1900 American Pop. Doubled/tripled in the cities • Cities grew up and out • Louis Sullivan: Chi. 1885 Skyscrapers • Walking cities to commuting cities • Electricity->>trolleys • Indoor Plumbing • Jobs • Dept. Stores/shoppers • Problems • Crime • Impure water • Garbage/disease • Unsanitary • Dumbbell tenements • Jacob Riis: How The Other Half Lives • People move to Suburbs • Immigrants convene in inner ring of the cities (cheaper)
How did immigration shift in the 1880s? How was the new wave different from those that came before? Why did they come How did reformers attempt to help immigrants settle in? What was the reaction of Nativist? Explain • Before 188s from England and W. Europe • Germany, Scandinavia • Traditions of Rep. Government • Protestants • After 1880s Southern and E. Europe • Push/Pull----no room in Europe/no employment • Displaced by industrialization • Birds of Passage/Chain Migration---wealth exaggerated by people seeking cheap labor • Tried to hold on to their cultures and customs • Children: Americanized
How did churches address the immigration challenge? Describe with regard to the religious revival at the Urban Level and the practice of the Social Gospel movement. • No system for assimilation • Political Bosses provided jobs, shelter in return for political support • Awareness of slums grew • Walter Rauschenbusch, Washington Gladden preached Social Gospel • Insisted Churches attack social problems • Jane Addams founded Hull House 1889: to teach skills , info needed to succeed in America • Settlement Houses • Florence Kelly---women workers/child labor
Churches/Immigrants • Many people worried that Churches’ avoidance of the plight of the poor in the Cities meant that Satan was wining the battle of good v. evil>>>>>Urban Revivalist • Dwight Lyman Moody>>>Gospel of Kindness • Moody Bible Institute • 1889 Chicago • Cardinal Gibbons>>>>American Unity • Salvation Army • Church of Christ, Scientist (Mary Baker Eddy) taught Christianity heals sickness • YMCA YWCA founded
How did Darwin and Modernist affect thinking at this juncture? • Old Immigrant v. New Immigrants----Germans and W. Europeans looked down on Slavs, and Baltic peoples • Feared Mixed blood w/ Anglo-Saxons • “Native” Americans blamed immigrant for problems of the cities • Trade unions hated them for willingness to work for less wages and brining in dangerous doctrines….Socialism and Communism • APA: American Protective Association with Labor Leaders sought to stop immigration. • 1853 Charles Darwin On The Origins of Species • Doctrine of evolution
Darwin and Modernist • Doctrine of Evolution • Modernist step away from fundamentalism • Hard to believe in the face of science: Bible is real • Modern thought—departure from tradition, Catholic movement to examine their belief(bible) according to contemporary criticism, philosophy and histotiography
Booker T. WashingtonW.E.B. DuBois Washington DuBois 1st Ph.D. Black from Harvard Demands complete equality and action now Founded the NAACP in 1910 Talented 10th Reflects real differences in life between N. Black and S. Blacks • Ex-slave-headed a black normal and industrial school Tuskegee AL • Avoided the issue of social inequality • George Washington Carver
Suffrage • National American Women Suffrage Association 1890 • Elizabeth Cady Stanton---1st Women’s Rights Convention 1848 • Susan B. Anthony • 1900-Carrie Chapman Catt • WY Territory---vote • The General Federation of Women’s Clubs-1895 • Ida B. Wells--NACW
Describe the effects of American’s movement Westward on the Native Americans • Civil War’s impact on expansion: Delay—Plains Indians---few NEW States • Dramatic Geography • New Peoples to conquer • Dry---treeless, flat different soil, plant life animals, etc. • Less that 15” of rain---regular farming—out of the question • Iroquois Nation • Buffalo
What Policies did US follow toward the Indians as evidenced in Mid century treaties How did Indians respond? • American broken promises • Indian Bureau Agent were corrupt • Trappers, prospectors, hunters, outlaws seemed to answer to no one • Gold Rush • Gov. officials drive off Arapaho, Cheyanne off promised lands granted 10 yrs. earlier • Cheyanne sue for peace • Chief Black Kettle promised protection; ambushed by Col. John Chivinton’s forces.
What was the Dawes Severalty Act and how did it represent a shift in US policy toward the Indians? • Authorized the breaking up of the reservations • Land too poor to farm • Indians are not farmers • Land held in trusts • 4/5 defrauded of titles • Surplus land sold off
How did mining help settle the West? • Primary wind falls 1804-1866---beaver pelts, buffalo, gold.. • CA 1849-50 Gold, silver---Nevada too • Gold/Silver—Idaho, CO MT SD WY • Trend: ‘49ers in search of new mother lodes • And a movement east/Comstock Lode (Nevada) the huge bonanza of gold and Silver
How did Cattle Ranching help to settle the West? • Between the end of Indians & Buffalo + farmers w/ barbed wire • Cattle and open range grazing • Harvest free grasses • Eastern demand….national diet changes • Railheads Abilene Wichita Dodge City • Long Drives>>>Cowboys>>>cattletowns