Cells • Cells are the most important things in the world!
Cell membrane • Phospholipid bilayer • Transport proteins help move materials in and out of the cell • Carbohydrate chains help mark the cell • Cholesterol stabilizes membrane
It is a membrane-bound organelle and is surrounded by a double membrane. • It communicates with the surrounding cytosol via numerous nuclear pores. Nucleus
Within the nucleus is the DNA responsible for providing the cell with its unique characteristics.
Nucleolus Produces ribosomes. Not membrane bound. Made of DNA and protein.
Nuclear Envelope • Double plasma membrane • Pores • Regulates what goes in and out of the nucleus
Chromosomes and Chromatin • Made of DNA and protein • Contain genetic instructions • These chromosomes are wound up DNA and protein
Endoplasmic Reticulum • E.R. is made of plasma membranes and has two forms • Smooth that has no ribosomes • Packages, modifies and transports lipids • Detoxifies alcohol • Rough that has ribosomes attached • Transports, packages and modifies protein • Where most protein synthesis occurs
Golgi Apparatus • Is made of membrane • Packages materials for export from the cell • Seen here in lower middle of cell with vessicles budding off.
Mitochondria • Has a double unit membrane • Has its own DNA • Converts the energy from glucose into ATP
Fluid of the cell Where cell reactions take place Allows chemicals to mix and diffuse Cytoplasm/Cytosol
Surrounded by plasma membrane Storage containers for Pigment Water Food waste Vacuoles
Has a plasma membrane Contain digestive enzymes so the cell can: Get rid of worn out cell parts Get rid of invading cells and poisons Self destruct Lysosomes animation
Made of microtubules and microfilaments Gives the cell organelles support Helps with internal transportation of materials Cytoskeleton
Ribosome • Assembles proteins from amino acids
Centriole • Helps cell divide
Cell Wall • Found on plant cells, fungus cells and bacteria cells • Made of complex carbohydrates • Gives the plant cell shape and support • Prevents bursting from osmotic pressure
Double plasma membrane and its own DNA Converts light into glucose by the process of photosynthesis Chloroplast