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Describing Time Series in Words

Describing Time Series in Words

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Describing Time Series in Words

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  1. Describing Time Series in Words V. Shiv Naga Prasad Generating English Summaries of Time Series Data Using the Gricean Maxims - Somayajulu G. Sripada, Ehud Reiter, Jim Hunter and Jin Yu

  2. What not to do • MANAGEMENT SPEAK: The procedure which you have referenced is the correctly referenced procedure for the procedure which you referenced and which I am referencing in my reply about the procedure in which your original inquiry was referenced. • TRANSLATION: Yes. -- IS Survivalist Bill Murray swears he received this response from a not-to-be-named standards body

  3. Generating Textual Summaries • What is to be told? • select salient trends in data. • How to express it? • Lingua franca of the domain. • Generate the text.

  4. Example of Issues • Many things can be described. • Many ways of describing.

  5. What is significant? Difficult question This is actually an artifact and should be suppressed during summary.

  6. Gricean Maxims of Communication • Quality – stick to facts. • Quantity – neither too less nor too much. • Relevance for the user. • Manner – be concise and consistent.

  7. Approach • Segment sequence into linear segments. • Describe end-points of segments.

  8. Quality Actual values better than estimates (quality). Use range to show uncertainity. Line of best fit Estimated value Actual value 01-06 0.5-1.5 Increasing 4.5-5.5

  9. Quantity Eliminate artifacts – maybe with interpolation

  10. Relevance • Small changes might not be important. • This influences: • Segmentation. • Scale of description.

  11. Manner • Be consistent – use standard adjectives and ordering. 01-06 0.5-1.5 Increasing 4.5-5.5 06-09 4.5-5.5 Steady 09-13 4.5-5.5 Decreasing 0-0.5 • Avoid obscurity – omit eventless segments. 01-06 0.5-1.5 Increasing 4.5-5.5 09-13 4.5-5.5 Decreasing 0-0.5

  12. Evaluation Results for SumTime-Mousam • Facts were correctly described. • Humans eliminated much more irrelevant facts. • System still rookie in terms of linguistic elegance: • Connectives (e.g. then~and). • Repeated use of “and”.

  13. Comments • Currently describes linear trends • how about specific patterns? • Differentiating between anomalies and artifacts is difficult. • Is textual description better than graphics? • Using text-to-speech and textual summaries audio can be used as an additional modality. • For visually impaired, summaries in brail would be useful.