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Chapter 11, part A

Chapter 11, part A

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Chapter 11, part A

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  1. Chapter 11, part A The Prokaryotes:Domains Bacteria and Archaea

  2. The Prokaryotes: Domains Bacteria and Archaea • One circular chromosome, not in a membrane • No histones • No organelles • Peptidoglycan cell walls • Binary fission

  3. Domain Bacteria • Proteobacteria • Mythical Greek god, Proteus, who could assume many shapes • Gram-negative

  4. The  (alpha) Proteobacteria • Nitrogen-fixing bacteria: • Azospirillum • Grow in soil, using nutrients excreted by plants • Fix nitrogen • Rhizobium • Fix nitrogen in the roots of plants Figure 27.5

  5. The  (alpha) Proteobacteria • Produce acetic acid from ethyl alcohol: • Acetobacter • Gluconobacter

  6. The  (alpha) Proteobacteria • Obligate intracellular parasites: • Ehrlichia. Tick-borne, ehrlichiosis • Rickettsia. Arthropod-borne, spotted fevers • R. prowazekii Epidemic typhus • R. typhi Endemic murine typhus • R. rickettsii Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

  7. The  (alpha) Proteobacteria Figure 11.1

  8. The  (alpha) Proteobacteria • Have prosthecae: • Caulobacter. Stalked bacteria found in lakes • Hyphomicrobium. Budding bacteria found in lakes Figure 11.2 & 3

  9. The  (alpha) Proteobacteria • Plant pathogen: • Agrobacterium. Insert a plasmid into plant cells, inducing a tumor Figure 9.17

  10. The  (alpha) Proteobacteria • Chemoautotrophic: • Oxidize nitrogen for energy • Fix CO2 • Nitrobacter. NH3+ NO2– • Nitrosomonas. NO2– NO3–

  11. The  (alpha) Proteobacteria • Wolbachia. Live in insects and other animals

  12. The  (beta) Proteobacteria

  13. The  (beta) Proteobacteria • Thiobacillus • Chemoautotrophic, oxidize sulfur: H2S  SO42– • Sphaerotilus • Chemoheterotophic, form sheaths Figure 11.5

  14. The  (beta) Proteobacteria • Bordetella • Chemoheterotrophic, rods • B. pertussis • Burkholderia. Nosocomial infections • Zoogloea. Slimy masses in aerobic sewage-treatment processes

  15. The  (beta) Proteobacteria • Neisseria • Chemoheterotrophic, cocci • N. meningitidis • N. gonorrhoeae • Spirillum • Chemoheterotrophic, helical Figure 11.4 & 6

  16. The  (gamma) Proteobacteria

  17. The  (gamma) Proteobacteria • Beggiatoa • Chemoautotrophic, oxidize H2S to S0 for energy • Francisella • Chemoheterotrophic, tularemia

  18. The  (gamma) Proteobacteria • Pseudomonadales: • Pseudomonas • Opportunistic pathogens • Metabolically diverse • Polar flagella • Azotobacter and Azomonas. Nitrogen fixing • Moraxella. Conjunctivitis Figure 11.7

  19. The  (gamma) Proteobacteria • Legionellales: • Legionella • Found in streams, warm-water pipes, cooling towers • L. pneumophilia • Coxiella • Q fever transmitted via aerosols or milk Figure 24.15b

  20. The  (gamma) Proteobacteria • Vibrionales: • Found in coastal water • Vibrio cholerae causes cholera • V. parahaemolyticus causes gastroenteritis Figure 11.8

  21. The  (gamma) Proteobacteria • The  (gamma) Proteobacteria • Enterobacteriales (enterics): • Peritrichous flagella, facultatively anaerobic • Enterobacter • Erwinia • Escherichia • Klebsiella • Proteus • Salmonella • Serratia • Shigella • Yersinia

  22. The  (gamma) Proteobacteria • Pasteurellales: • Pasteurella • Cause pneumonia and septicemia • Haemophilus • Require X (heme) and V (NAD+, NADP+) factors

  23. The  (delta) Proteobacteria

  24. The  (delta) Proteobacteria • Bdellovibrio. Prey on other bacteria • Desulfovibrionales. Use S instead of O2 as final electron acceptor • Myxococcales. Gliding. Cells aggregate to form myxospores

  25. The  (epsilon) Proteobacteria

  26. The  (epsilon) Proteobacteria • Campylobacter • One polar flagellum • Gastroenteritis Figure 11.1a

  27. The  (epsilon) Proteobacteria • Helicobacter Figure 11.1b

  28. Multiple flagella • Peptic ulcers • Stomach cancer

  29. The Nonproteobacteria Gram-Negative Bacteria

  30. Cyanobacteria • Oxygenic photosynthesis • Gliding motility • Fix nitrogen

  31. Cyanobacteria Figure 11.12a-c

  32. Purple and Green Photosynthetic Bacteria • Anoxygenic photosynthesis • Purple and green sulfur bacteria light 2H2O + CO2 (CH2O) + H2O + O2 light 2H2S + CO2 (CH2O) + H2O + 2S0

  33. Clostridiales • Clostridium • Endospore-producing • Obligate anaerobes • Epulopiscium Figure 11.14 & 15

  34. Bacillales • Bacillus • Endospore-producing rods Figure 11.16b

  35. Bacillales • Staphylococcus • Cocci Figure 1.17

  36. Lactobacillales • Generally aerotolerant anaerobes, lack an electron-transport chain • Lactobacillus • Streptococcus • Enterococcus • Listeria Figure 11.18

  37. Mycoplasmatales • Wall-less, pleomorphic • 0.1 - 0.24 µm • M. pneumoniae Figure 11.19a, b

  38. Actinobacteria • High G + C • Gram-positive

  39. Actinobacteria • Actinomyces • Corynebacterium • Frankia • Gardnerella • Mycobacterium • Nocardia • Propionibacterium • Streptomyces Figure 11.20b

  40. Chlamydiae • C. trachomatis • Trachoma • STD, urethritis • C. pneumoniae • C. psittaci • Causes psittacosis

  41. In Bergey's Manual, Volume 5 Figure 11.22b

  42. Spirochaetes • Borrelia • Leptospira • Treponema Figure 11.23

  43. Bacteroidetes • Anaerobic • Bacteroides. In mouth and large intestine • Cytophaga. Cellulose-degrading in soil

  44. Fusobacteria • Fusobacterium • Found in mouth • May be involved in dental diseases Figure 11.24

  45. Domain Archaea • Hyperthermophiles • Pyrodictium • Sulfolobus • Methanogens • Methanobacterium • Extreme halophiles • Halobacterium Figure 11.25