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Chapter 11- part 1: Adolescence

Chapter 11- part 1: Adolescence

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Chapter 11- part 1: Adolescence

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  1. Chapter 11- part 1: Adolescence Module 5 Physical Development in Adolescence

  2. PHYSICAL MATURATION

  3. Growth During Adolescence Rapid Pace of Physical and Sexual Maturation • Adolescence • Growth spurt 260

  4. Physical Manifestations of Puberty • Rapid growth • Development of primary and secondary sex characteristics • Changes in body composition • Changes in circulatory and respiratory systems 261

  5. Puberty in Girls • Begins earlier for girls than for boys • Girls start puberty at around age 11 or 12, and boys begin at around age 13 or 14 • Wide variations among individuals • Influenced by environment 261

  6. Onset of Menarche • Varies in different parts of world • Begins later in poorer, developing countries • Influenced by proportion of fat to muscle in body • Related to environmental stress 261

  7. Puberty in Boys • Penis and scrotum begin to grow at accelerated rate around age 12 and reach adult size about 3 or 4 years later • Enlargement of prostate gland and seminal vesicles • Spermarche around age 13 263

  8. What is a secular trend? • Earlier start of puberty is example of significant secular trend • Pattern of change occurring over several generations • Trends occur when physical characteristic changes over course of several generations • Result of better nutrition over centuries 262

  9. Primary Sex Characteristics • Further development of sex glands • Testes in males • Ovaries in females 262

  10. Secondary Sex Characteristics • Changes in genitals and breasts • Growth of hair: • Pubic • Facial • Body • Further development of sex organs 262

  11. Summary of Changes in Adolescence Sexual Maturation 263

  12. Changes in body composition • Body fat • Quantity and distribution of fat • Muscle • Quantity and distribution of muscle 263

  13. Changes in Circulatory and Respiratory Systems • Increased in strength • Increased tolerance for exercise 263

  14. Onset of Puberty • Gradual process • Roles of hormones (Collaer & Hines, 1995) • Organizational • Activational • Endocrine system levels of sex hormones • Feedback loop • Hypothalamuspituitary glandgonads(ovaries and testes) 263

  15. Adolescent Growth Spurt • Weight increase • Skeletal changes • Accelerated growth spurt • Asynchronicity in growth 264

  16. Timing and Tempo of Puberty • Variation of timing and tempo great • No relationship between onset and rate of pubertal development • Some differences; causes are inconclusive 261

  17. Psychological Impact of Puberty • Biological changes can have direct impact on behavior • Biological changes can impact self-image which in turn affects behavior • Biological changes transform appearance which may affect reactions of others, especially peers 263

  18. Impact of Specific Pubertal Events • Females • Menarche • Positive attitudegains in social maturity, peer prestige, self-esteem • Negative attitudegreater menstrual discomfort • Males • Ejaculation • Little research • May be related to how culture views masturbation 263

  19. Immediate Impact of Puberty • Self-esteem • Modest decline among girls when accompanied by other changes that require adaptationsocial context is important 263

  20. Nutrition, Food, and Eating Disorders: Fueling the Growth of Adolescence

  21. Nutritional Problems in Adolescence • Poor eating habits • High consumption of junk food/sugar/fats • Large portion sizes • Lack of variety • Related health concerns • Obesity • Osteoporosis • Diabetes • Heart disease 265

  22. Pubertal Changes and Eating Disorders • Obesity • Anorexia Nervosa • Bulimia 265

  23. Obesity • Ratio of body fat to muscle increases • Basal metabolism rate decreases • Overall physical appearance changes • 20% overweight; 5% obese; 15% seriously overweight 265

  24. Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia • Definitions • Anorexia=starvation to maintain low weight • Bulimia=binge and purge eating • 1% anorexic and 3% bulimic • Higher incidence among females • Disordered eating and body dissatisfaction reported across socioeconomic lines 266

  25. Adolescent Health One of healthiest times in life span • Relatively low incidence of disabling or chronic illness • Secular trend shows decrease in rates of death and disability • Medical technology has improved health care for children and youth

  26. Adolescent Health Period of relative great physical risknew morbidity and mortality • Unhealthy behaviors • Drug use • Violence • Self-inflicted and other-inflicted • Risky activity • Unprotected sexual intercourse • Drunken driving

  27. Brain Development and Thought: Paving the Way for Cognitive Growth

  28. A No Brainer????? • Brain changes • Growth spurts • No clear 1:1 correspondence 267

  29. Use It or Lose It • Brain produces oversupply of gray matter during adolescence which is later pruned back at rate of one to two percent per year 267

  30. The Primal Teen ““…as the teenage brain is reconfigured, it remains more exposed, more easily wounded, perhaps much more susceptible to critical and long-lasting damage than most parents and educators or even most scientists had thought.” -- (Strauch, 2003)

  31. From Research to Practice Immature Brain Argument: Too Young for the Death Penalty? • After reading the information on page 268, answer the following questions: • Do you think that the penalty for criminal behavior should be tied to the maturity of a criminal’s brain? Why or why not? • Are there other aspects of physical development that should be taken into consideration in determining a person’s responsibility for criminal activity? 268

  32. Booze It or Lose It! • Adolescent brain development produces changes in regions involving dopamine sensitivity and production • Adolescents may become less susceptible to effects of alcohol • More drinks required to experience reinforcing qualities—leading to higher alcohol intake • Alterations in dopamine sensitivity may create more sensitivity to stress, leading to further alcohol use 268

  33. Yawning of the Age of Adolescence Sleep Deprivation • Adolescents go to bed later and get up earlier • Sleep deprivation takes its toll • Lower grades • More depressed • Greater difficulty controlling their moods • Greater risk for auto accidents 268

  34. Review and Apply REVIEW • Adolescence is a period of rapid physical growth, including the changes puberty brings. • Adolescents’ response to puberty range widely—from confusion to increased self-esteem. • Adequate nutrition is essential to fuel adolescents’ physical growth. Changing physical needs and environmental pressures can induce obesity or eating disorders. 269

  35. Review and Apply APPLY • How can societal and environmental influences contribute to eating disorders? 269

  36. THREATS TO ADOLESCENTS’ WELL-BEING

  37. Why do adolescents use drugs? • Pleasurable experience • Escape • Peer pressure • Biological and psychological addiction 270

  38. Alcohol: Use and Abuse • Incidence • Binge drinking 270

  39. Why do adolescents start to drink? • Way of proving themselves • Release of inhibitions and tension and reduction of stress • False consensus effect 271

  40. From Activity to Addiction Adolescent alcoholics • Alcohol use becomes uncontrollable habit • Increasing ability to tolerate alcohol • Increasing need to drink ever-larger amounts of liquor to bring about positive effects craved 271

  41. The Informed Consumer of Development Hooked on Drugs or Alcohol? Signals • Identification with the drug culture • Signs of physical deterioration • Dramatic changes in school performance • Changes in behavior (Adapted from Franck & Brownstone, 1991, p. 593–594) 271

  42. Tobacco: The Dangers of Smoking • Incidence • Differences: • Gender • International • Racial 272

  43. Why do adolescents begin to smoke and maintain the habit? • Advertisements in the media • Addiction • Parent and peer models • Adolescent rite of passage 272

  44. Developmental Diversity Pushing Smoking to the Less Advantaged • Tobacco companies carve out new markets by turning to least advantaged • Tobacco companies aggressively recruit adolescent smokers abroad 272

  45. How Many?

  46. Other Sexually Transmitted Infections • Human papilloma virus (HPV) • Trichomoniasis • Genital herpes • Gonorrhea and syphilis 273

  47. Review and Apply REVIEW • The use of illegal drugs and alcohol is prevalent among adolescents as a way to find pleasure, avoid pressure, or gain the approval of peers. • Despite the well-known dangers of smoking, adolescents often smoke to enhance their images or emulate adults. 275

  48. Review and Apply REVIEW • AIDS is the most serious of the sexually transmitted infections, ultimately causing death. Safe sex practices or sexual abstinence can prevent AIDS, although adolescents often ignore these strategies. 275

  49. Review and Apply APPLY • How do adolescents’ concerns about self-image and their perception that they are the center of attention contribute to smoking and alcohol use? 275