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Introduction to School-wide Positive Behavior Support: Rationale and Basic Logic

Introduction to School-wide Positive Behavior Support: Rationale and Basic Logic

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Introduction to School-wide Positive Behavior Support: Rationale and Basic Logic

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  1. Introduction to School-wide Positive Behavior Support: Rationale and Basic Logic Tim Lewis, Ph.D. University of Missouri OSEP Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports pbis.org

  2. Starting Point…. • Educators cannot “make” students learn or behave • Educators can create environments to increase the likelihood students learn and behave • Environments that increase the likelihood are guided by a core curriculum and implemented with consistency and fidelity

  3. Context The School Environment Must Support Appropriate Social & Academic Behavior School-Wide Positive Behavior Support Response to Intervention

  4. Typical responses to students • Increase monitoring for future problem behavior • Re-review rules & sanctions • Extend continuum of aversive consequences • Improve consistency of use of punishments • Establish “bottom line” • Zero tolerance policies • Security guards, student uniforms, metal detectors, video cameras • Suspension/expulsion • Exclusionary options (e.g., alternative programs)

  5. However… • “Punishing” problem behaviors (without a proactive support system) is associated with increases in (a) aggression, (b) vandalism, (c) truancy, and (d) dropping out. (Mayer, 1995, Mayer & Sulzar-Azaroff, 1991, Skiba & Peterson, 1999)

  6. Consider…. If antisocial behavior is not changed by the end of grade 3, it should be treated as a chronic condition much like diabetes. That is, it cannot be cured but managed with the appropriate supports and continuing intervention(Walker, Colvin, & Ramsey, 1995).

  7. Contributing Factors • Home • Poverty- Language • Parent/Child interactions • Community • School

  8. Contributing Factors - Poverty & Language Meaningful Differences in the Everyday Experience of Young American Children Betty Hart & Todd Risley

  9. Contributing Factors -Parent/Child Social Interactions • Common Patterns of early learning found in homes of children at-risk for anti-social behavior • Inconsistent discipline • Punitive management • Lack of monitoring

  10. Contributing Factors -Parent/Child Social Interactions Social Learning • Coercion/Negative Reinforcement (Patterson et al.) • Present an aversive, remove aversive once the person complies • “Social skills” to get need met

  11. Patterson, Capaldi, & Bank (1991)

  12. Contributing Factors Community (Biglan, 1995) • lack of pro-social engagement • antisocial network of peers

  13. Contributing Factors School (Mayer, 1995) • punitive disciplinary approach • lack of clarity about rules, expectations, and consequences • lack of staff support • failure to consider and accommodate individual differences • academic failure

  14. The Good News… Research reviews indicate that the most effective responses to school violence are (Elliot, Hamburg, & Williams, 1998Gottfredson, 1997; Lipsey, 1991; 1992; Tolan & Guerra, 1994) • Social Skills Training • Academic Restructuring • Behavioral Interventions

  15. Toward a Solution The answer is not the invention of new solutions, but the enhancement of the school’s organizational capacity to: • Accurately adopt and efficiently sustain their use of research-validated practices • Provide a Seamless continuum of behavioral and academic support for all students • Adopt an instructional focus that accounts for student prior “learning history”

  16. School-wide Positive Behavior Support SWPBS is a broad range of systemic and individualized strategies for achieving important social and learning outcomes while preventing problem behavior OSEP Center on PBIS

  17. SWPBS is not... • Not specific practice or curriculum…it’s a general approach to preventing problem behavior • Not limited to any particular group of students…it’s for all students • Not new…its based on long history of behavioral practices & effective instructional design & strategies

  18. Social Competence & Academic Achievement Positive Behavior Support OUTCOMES Supporting Decision Making Supporting Staff Behavior DATA SYSTEMS PRACTICES Supporting Student Behavior

  19. Academic Systems Behavioral Systems • Intensive, Individual Interventions • Individual Students • Assessment-based • High Intensity • Intensive, Individual Interventions • Individual Students • Assessment-based • Intense, durable procedures • Targeted Group Interventions • Some students (at-risk) • High efficiency • Rapid response • Targeted Group Interventions • Some students (at-risk) • High efficiency • Rapid response • Universal Interventions • All students • Preventive, proactive • Universal Interventions • All settings, all students • Preventive, proactive Designing School-Wide Systems for Student Success 1-5% 1-5% 5-10% 5-10% 80-90% 80-90%

  20. Continuum of Supports Math Science Spanish Soc skills Reading Horses

  21. Universal School-Wide Features • Clearly define expected behaviors (Rules) • All Settings • Classrooms • Procedures for teaching & practicing expected behaviors • Procedures for encouraging expected behaviors • Procedures for discouraging problem behaviors • Procedures for data-based decision making • Family Awareness and Involvement

  22. Benton Primary School

  23. RAH – at Adams City High School(Respect – Achievement – Honor)

  24. Tier II Interventions • Social-Behavioral Concerns • Social skills • Self-management • Academic Concerns • Peer Tutors • Check in • Homework club • Emotional Concerns • Adult mentors Linked to School-wide

  25. Tier III • When small group not sufficient • When problem intense and chronic • Driven by Functional Behavioral Assessment • Linked to school-wide system

  26. Outcomes

  27. Alton High SchoolAverage Referrals per Day

  28. Other High School Outcomes…. • Triton High School • 48% Free and reduced lunch • 59% reduction in suspension • Halved the drop out rate • Mountain View High School • 30% free and reduced lunch • 30% reduction in ODR • Last to first in achievement in district

  29. Mental Health Outcomes • Does School-wide SW-PBS fit within a comprehensive mental health model of prevention and intervention? Minimizing and reducing “risk factors” by building “protective factors”

  30. A&D = Alcohol and Drug; ABS = Anti-social Behavior Scale

  31. Group Cost Benefit Office Referral Reduction Across 12 PBIS schools= 5,606 If one Office Referral=15 minutes of administrator time, then 5,606 x 15= 84,090 minutes 1401.15 hours or 233 days of administrator time recovered and reinvested.

  32. Group Cost Benefit Office Referral Reduction Across 12 PBIS Schools =5,606 If students miss 45 minutes of instruction for each Office Referral, 5,606 X 45= 252,270 minutes 4204.50 hours or 700 days of instructional time recovered!!!!!

  33. RCT & Group Design SW-PBS Studies Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Thornton, L.A., & Leaf, P.J. (2009). Altering school climate through school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: Findings from a group-randomized effectiveness trial. Prevention Science, 10(2), 100-115 Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Bevans, K.B., Ialongo, N., & Leaf, P.J. (2008). The impact of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) on the organizational health of elementary schools. School Psychology Quarterly, 23(4), 462-473. Bradshaw, C. P., Mitchell, M. M., & Leaf, P. J. (2010). Examining the effects of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on student outcomes: Results from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12, 133-148. Bradshaw, C.P., Reinke, W. M., Brown, L. D., Bevans, K.B., & Leaf, P.J. (2008). Implementation of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) in elementary schools: Observations from a randomized trial. Education & Treatment of Children, 31, 1-26. Horner, R., Sugai, G., Smolkowski, K., Eber, L., Nakasato, J., Todd, A., & Esperanza, J., (2009). A randomized, wait-list controlled effectiveness trial assessing school-wide positive behavior support in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11, 133-145. Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Anderson, C. M. (2010). Examining the evidence base for school-wide positive behavior support. Focus on Exceptionality, 42(8), 1-14.

  34. Starting Point…. • Educators cannot “make” students learn or behave • Educators can create environments to increase the likelihood students learn and behave • Environments that increase the likelihood are guided by a core curriculum and implemented with consistency and fidelity