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  1. THE EUROPEAN UNION yesterday – today -tomorrow

  2. Why did the European integration start? • After the WW I the defeated countries were isolated both economically and politically. Moreover they were forced to pay enormous sums of money as so called reparations. Their national pride was humiliated, millions of people were left in poverty. In1930s the world was hit by Big Depression. This opened the Nazi Party (NSDAP) the door to seizing power in Germany, which led to the WW II. • After the WW II western statesmen – facing the danger of Communism - decided not to repeat the previous mistake and integrate former enemies (Germany and Italy) into a democratic community of nations.

  3. When did it start? On 9th May 1950 French foreign minister Robert Schuman kept his famous speech(known as Schuman Declaration), in which he proposed integration of coal and steel industries of west European countries. Nowadays 9th May is commemorated as the EuropeDay or Schuman Day.

  4. The Treaty of Paris • Schuman's idea came true one year later, on 18th April 1951, when the Treaty of Paris was signed, which founded the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC). The treaty came into effect on 23rd July 1952. • The founding members of the ECSC were France, West Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxemburg. • The treaty expired on 23rd July 2002, exactly fifty years after it came into effect.

  5. ECSC

  6. The Treaty of Rome The ECSC turned out to be a real success.Therefore in 1957 its members signed TheTreaty of Rome which founded theEuropean Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) and the European EconomicCommunity (EEC). The member states agreed about removing trade barriers.

  7. The Treaty of Rome

  8. The Merger Treaty • In 1967 the institutions of the three European communities (ECSC, EURATOM and EEC) were merged. The Merger Treaty was signed in the Brussels in 1965 and came into force two years later. From this point on, there was a single Commission, a single Council ofMinisters as well as the European Parliament.

  9. TheTreaty of Maastricht • In 1992 The Treaty of Maastrichtwas signed. Itintroduced new forms of co-operation between the member state governments - for example on defence, and in the area of "justice and home affairs". By adding this inter-governmental co-operation to the existing "Community" system, the Maastricht Treaty created the European Union (EU). It led to the creation of the Euro and introduced the three-pillarstructure: the Economic and Social Policy pillar, the Common Foreign and Security Policy pillar (CFSP) and the Justice and Home Affairspillar.

  10. The Treaty ofAmsterdam • The Treaty of Amsterdam, commonly known as the Amsterdam Treaty, was signed on 2nd October 1997, and entered into force on 1st May 1999. • It introduced European citizenship and High Representative for EU foreign policy. • Later most if itsprovisions were modified.

  11. The Treaty of Nice • The Treaty of Nice was adopted in Nice by the European Council on 26th February 2001 to amend the Treaty of Rome and the Treaty of Maastricht. • It prepared conditions for the enlargement by setting the number of MEPs to 732 and number of Commissioners to maximum 25. • It also contained provisions to deal with the financial consequences of the expiry of the Treaty of Paris (ECSCTreaty).

  12. The Treaty of Nice

  13. The Enlargement – Step by Step • 1951:Belgium, West Germany, Luxembourg, France, Italy, the Netherlands • 1973:Denmark, Ireland, the United Kingdom • 1981:Greece • 1986:Spain, Portugal • 1990: East Germany reunited with the FRG • 1995: Austria, Finland, Sweden • 2004:Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia,Slovenia • 2007:Bulgaria, Romania • 2013: Croatia

  14. Who Is To Come? • THE CANDITATES OF MEMBERSHIP: Turkey, Macedonia, Iceland (?) • MEMBERSHIP REJECTED: Norway • WOULD-BE MEMBERS: Serbia, Montenegro, Ukraine

  15. WhatIt Looks Like Today

  16. The Council of Ministers • The Council of the Union (Council, sometimes referred to as the Council of Ministers) is the European Union's main decision-making institution. • It consists of the ministers of the twentyeightMember States responsible for the matters on the agenda: foreign affairs, farming, industry, transport or whatever. • Each country in the Union in turn holds the chair for six months.

  17. The European Commission • The European Commission is a body with powers of initiative, implementation, management and control. It is the guardian of the Treaties. It is composed of twenty seven independent members (one from each member state). • It is the only EU body with right to propose new rules and regulations. • The current president of the Commission is José Manuel Barroso from Portugal. • The Czech Commissioner is Štefan Füle.

  18. Barosso

  19. Füle

  20. The European Parliament • The European Parliament is the assembly of the representatives of the 454 million Union citizens. Since 1979 they have been elected by direct universal suffrage and today total 785 distributed between Member States by reference to their population. Parliament's main functions are as follows: • it considers the Commission's proposals and is associated with the Council in the legislative process • it has the power of control over the Union's activities • it shares budgetary powers with the Council in voting on the annual budget • The current president of the EP is Martin Schulz fromGermany. • The Czech Republic is represented by 22MEPs.

  21. The European Parliament Brussels x Strasbourg

  22. Political Groups in EP • European People's Party (EPP) • European Socialists (PSE) • Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (ALDE) • The Greens/European Free Alliance • Confederal Group of European United Left/Nordic Green Left (GUE/NGL) • Independence/Democracy (IND/DEM) • Union for Europe of the Nations (UEN) • European Conservatives and Reformists (ECR)

  23. Czech MEPs • ECR: 9 (ODS) • PSE: 7 (ČSSD) • GUE/NGL: 4 (KSČM) • EPP: 2 (KDU-ČSL)

  24. Useful Websites • • • •

  25. … there are different views.  •

  26. THE END