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The European Union

The European Union

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The European Union

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  1. The European Union

  2. Jean Monnet Robert Shuman “Faire L’Europe C’est Faire Le Paix” Jean Monnet

  3. Europe United • The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), 1952 • The European Community (EC) • Treaty of Rome (1957) • Single European Act (1986) – common market • European Union (EU) • Maastricht treaty (1992)-monetary union • Treaty Establishing a Constitution for Europe (2004)

  4. Levels of Economic Integration • Free Trade Area (FTA): • North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) • Customs Union: • European Community before Single European Act • MERCOSUR • Common market: • European Community after Single European Act (1986) implemented • Economic and monetary union • European Union after Maastricht treaty (1992) implemented

  5. European Union Enlargement • 1973: Britain, Ireland, Denmark (9) • 1980s: Greece, Portugal, Spain (12) • 1994: Austria, Finland, and Sweden (15) • 2004: 8 CEE countries, Malta, and Cyprus (25) • Bulgaria, Romania – bid for 2007 membership • Turkey, Croatia – started membership negotiations

  6. European Institutions(Supranational Institutions) • European Council • Heads of States • Council of Ministers • Government officials/Ministers • European Parliament • Directly elected country representatives • European Commission • 25 commissioners, civil servants • Directorates Generals: Environment, Trade, Justice, External Relations, etc. • European Court of Justice • European Central Bank

  7. EU Legislation Case Study • Directive 2001/80/EC limiting emissions of certain air pollutants large combustion plants (SO2, NOx, dust) • European Commission • 1997 Acidification Strategy • Proposes directive to tighten emissions for power plants • Council of Ministers and European Parliament adopt directive in 2001 • European Commission monitors

  8. ECJ: Cassis de Dijon • Germany bans import of Cassis de Dijon liqueur • German import company Rowe-Zentral AG takes case to the ECJ • Precedent for the “mutual recognition” principle

  9. European Budget • Total (2005): 106bn Euros • Agriculture (46%): • “with the amount of EU agricultural subsidies you can fly every EU cow across the Atlantic first class” • Regional and Structural Funds (30%) Source: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/europe/04/money/html/other.stm