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THE EUROPEAN UNION. Aurélien Mazuy Pascaline Winand Caitlin Gheller Alfonso Mart ínez Arranz.

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  1. THE EUROPEAN UNION Aurélien Mazuy Pascaline Winand Caitlin Gheller Alfonso Martínez Arranz Unless otherwise specified, all images and icons in this presentation are publicly available from commons.wikimedia.org under the names specified in the respective captions or by looking up the relevant topic (e.g. flags, maps) Outreach presentation by the

  2. Contents • Intro • What is the European Union • Why the European Union • Historical steps • Latest developments • European institutions • What does the EU do? • EU – Australia • Other topics of European integration

  3. Cześć! Who I am ¡Hola! • Pascaline Winand • My identities: • Belgian • European: • Father from Walloon and Flemish parts of Belgium • Mother from France and Austria • International: • Studied and taught in Belgium, France, the United States, Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Peru, Italy and now in Australia Hey! Salut !

  4. Belgium: a mini-Europe Languages (and regions) of Belgium • Yellow (Flanders): Dutch • Red (Wallonia): French • Orange (Brussels): French – Dutch • Blue (Wallonia): German The monumental main square in Brussels

  5. What is the European Union A brief introduction

  6. One of a kind… • Not a State: in-between a state and an international organisation • Not Europe: Norway, Switzerland etc. are not members of the EU • Has 28 member states with the accession of Croatia in 2013

  7. Population As of 1 January 2013. Data source: Eurostat

  8. Membership • How can a country become a member of the European Union? • Be a “European country” • Respect human rights, democracy and other “European values” since 1993 laid down in The Copenhagen Criteria • Examples: • Morocco’s application rejected in 1987 as “not European” without further consideration • Turkey has been left waiting since 1986 but negotiations have slowly progressed

  9. Many member states and… • EU institutions (Commission, Council, Court of Justice…) • Many policies: agriculture, environment, competition, immigration… • Many players: private interest groups, citizen groups, non EU governmental actors, journalists…

  10. But what do people speak? • Working languages: English, French and German • Official languages: the languages of the member states (i.e 24 languages) • Citizens can ask for any document in their own language

  11. The European Union ‘Symbols’: • An anthem: “Ode to Joy” by Beethoven

  12. A flag: 12 stars

  13. Europe Day 9 May • A day to remember: Schuman declaration On 9 May 1950 French Foreign Minister Robert Schuman called for a supranational organisation to unite European countries

  14. A motto: “United in diversity”

  15. Why the European Union? The reasons for European integration

  16. Uniting Europe: a long tradition But rarely peaceful! • Roman Empire : 27 BCE to 476 CE • Carolingian Empire: 7th century • Christendom during the Middle Ages • Habsburg Empire: 17th century • Napoleon Empire : 19th century • Axis Conquests in WWII

  17. War Trauma • European institutions created in the aftermath of WWI (1914-1918) & WWII (1939-1945), which were fought disproportionately in Europe • Millions of Britons, French, Germans, Italians and others died, making up over 3% of their total populations (cf. 1.38% of Australian pop. who perished in WWI) Ruins of Warsaw, 1945 German dead at the Battle of the Somme, 1916

  18. The case for the modern Union • Now that fear of war is increasingly a distant memory… • “A strong Europe in a globalised world” • Possible to compete with other economic giants (USA / Japan / China…) • Coordinating foreign policies to recover lost influence • More coherent to tackle terrorism and organized crime • Defend certain values: rule of law, human rights, peace

  19. Historic steps towards European union From economic to political integration

  20. Early European Communities • In 1951, six European countries established a European Coal and Steel Community

  21. Early European Communities • In 1957, the same founding members sign the Treaties of Rome creating • the European Economic Community • European Atomic Energy Community • Treaties of Rome still in use today (heavily amended): formal predecessors of the modern-day EU

  22. Who were the six founding members? • France • Germany • The Netherlands • Italy • Belgium • Luxembourg

  23. Can you find the six founding members on the map? France Germany The Netherlands Italy Belgium Luxembourg

  24. Founding members Belgium France Germany Italy Luxembourg The Netherlands The Netherlands Belgium Germany France Luxembourg • Italy

  25. 1973: The Community expands to nine member states and develops its common policies Denmark Republic of Ireland The United Kingdom

  26. Can you find the new members on the map? • Denmark • The U.K • Rep. of Ireland CE | | P-012620/00-04 | 07/02/2007

  27. First enlargement Denmark Rep. of Ireland UK Denmark Republic of Ireland The United Kingdom

  28. 1979: The 1st direct elections to the European Parliament (now held every five years)

  29. 1981 & 1986: The 1st Mediterranean enlargements • Greece: January 1981 • Spain: January 1986 • Portugal: January 1986

  30. Can you find the new members on the map? • Greece • Spain • Portugal CE | | P-012620/00-04 | 07/02/2007

  31. 1981 & 1986: The Mediterranean enlargements Greece (1981) Spain (1986) Portugal (1986) Spain Portugal Greece

  32. 1980s: the single market • Despite some progress, after decades of integration many impediments remained to free trade within the European Community • During the 1980s, President of the European Commission Jacques Delors devised a plan to have a Single Market by 1992 to further harmonise regulation, and improve free movement of goods and capital • Leads to the Single European Act (signed in 1986)

  33. Fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 • Some are reticent to let Germany reunite • Germany agrees to deeper European integration, including a common currency • Unification of Germany in October 1990 (‘silent’ EU enlargement)

  34. European Union created • November 1993: The Treaty of Maastricht establishes the European Union • Foreign policy, common currency, justice system and other key sovereignty markers are tackled by the integration process for the first time CE | |

  35. January 1995: The European Union expands to 15 members Austria Finland Sweden

  36. Can you find these new countries on the map? • Austria • Finland • Sweden CE | | P-012620/00-04 | 07/02/2007

  37. 1995 enlargement Austria Finland Sweden Finland Sweden Austria

  38. The road to the euro • 1992 Maastricht Treaty establishes provisions for common currency • 1994 European Central Bank established • 1995 Name “euro” chosen • 1997 Stability Pact signed • 1999 Euro valid as e.g. for cheques, etc. • 2002: Euro notes and coins introduced

  39. What is the value of 1 Euro? = 1.52 $AUS (as of 3/1/2014) CE | | P-008484/00-11 | 2001

  40. A French baguette: • 4€ • 1,50€ • 23,65€

  41. B. 1,50€ (= 2,51 $AUS)

  42. Spaghetti at a restaurant: • 16€ • 36€ • 45€

  43. A. 16€ (= 26,8 $AUS)

  44. Thalys train ticket (Paris-Brussels) one way – full fare: • 39€ • 49€ • 99€

  45. A. 39€ (= 48,69 $AUS)

  46. 2004: Ten more countries join the European Union: Poland Estonia Lithuania Latvia The Czech Republic Malta Cyprus Hungary Slovakia Slovenia

  47. Can you find these new members on the map? Cyprus The Czech Republic Estonia Hungary Latvia CE | | P-012620/00-04 | 07/02/2007 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/99/Europe_blank_map.png/1000px-Europe_blank_map.png

  48. CE | | P-012620/00-04 | 07/02/2007 Eastern enlargement 2004 Cyprus Czech Republic Estonia Hungary Latvia Estonia Latvia Czech Republic Hungary Cyprus

  49. Can you find these new members on the map? Lithuania Malta Poland Slovakia Slovenia CE | | P-012620/00-04 | 07/02/2007

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