Senior University Fall 2008 The Phantom Science Session 6 The Fat Lady Sings The Rise & Fall(?) of the West Set Your Watch on Mountain Time
Early Humans Early to Class, that is. It’s a No, No when there’s a camera “History is so indifferently rich that a case for almost an conclusion from it can be made by a selection of instances” Will and Ariel Durant, “The Lessons of History”
Now back to business Remember the diamonds in Arkansas?
Crater of Diamonds State Park Arkansas Diamonds
Geologic Map USA Diamonds Diamond Volcano Diamonds Texas Volcanics
Diamonds No Diamonds No Diamonds Now for Session 6
Remember from Last Week At the close of the 1700’s Natural Philosophy (geology) was in harmony with the Western Ecclesiastical, Political, & Economic Power Structure of the Time! Where we are in World History THIS HARMONY WOULD NOT LAST LONG!!
Remember from Last Week Then, it was the Internal Combustion Engine The Great Nations and Empires ran on Their access to Iron and Coal Iron & Coal provided tools & Weapons Now Great Nations run on Oil Transportation: by Foot or “Horse” Everything changes with the invention of the Steam Engine Only the USA and Russia have large DOMESTIC Oil reserves Now Coal is truly KING!
Civilizations Time Lines 1700 TO 2008 The Principal Players Our focus today: 1. Europe & USA: 19th & 20th Centuries
Essential Natural Resources Now Oil Iron and Coal Coal or Nuclear Internal Combustion Engine Electric Motor Foot & “Horse” Steam
Our focus today: 1. Europe & USA: 19th & 20th Centuries First: Europe & the USA in 19th & 20th Centuries Background If you’ve got it flaunt it 2. Phantom Science comes Center Stage You ain’t seen nothing yet! 3. USA, Russia, & China: 21st Century Weighed in the Balance & Found Wanting
The World 1500 – 1800 AD The Rush for the Resources of the New World Next: the Struggle in Europe
Europe and the Eastern Hemisphere Conflicts for Iron & Coal 19th & 20th centuries Oil Oil for Engines 20th century Wars & Concessions to Reallocate and Augment the Natural Resources of Europe
The Scramble for Oil: 20th Century Lacked Oil USA 48 states Middle East USA, Shell Saudi Arabia France, Britain, Shell,USA Iraq ,Iran, etc Energy in the USA Today USA: Only country in the world with abundant, DEVELOPED Iron, Coal, & Oil USA Libya USA Venezuela Oil joins Iron and Coal as essential to being World Class Nation USA Indonesia
Supply of all US Energy by Source Uses of all Petroleum
Daily Oil Production Worldwide(?) Daily Oil Production USA ‘50 – ‘08 30 mm b/d
Worldwide Oil & Gas reserves Estimated 2030 (dbeau)
Now: The Phantom Science takes Center Stage!
General Geology Geologic Maps Mining James Hutton: Father of Modern Geology Rock Sequences Europe 19th Century Pioneers of the Science of Geology
Round Earth 250 BC to 1492 AD Sun center of our universe James Hutton: (1726-1797) King James Bible Da Vinci Crusades Marco Polo Tours 1000 500 0 500 1000 1500 2000 De Re Metalica Greece Rome Bishop Ussher Columbus 1492 James Hutton: Father of Modern Geology
James Hutton: (1726-1797) Scottish gentleman farmer & physician “The past history of our globe must be explained by what can be seen to be happening now”
Geology’s Most Famous Rock Outcrop: Siccar Point: Eastern Scotland on the North Sea What did Hutton learn here?
James Hutton: (1726-1797) • Rise & Fall of sea level = erosion & deposition • Subterranean heat = • volcanoes & lavas • Veins of metal ores, • Uplifts (mountains) • rock folding, and faults
James Hutton: Scottish gentleman farmer Complex Sequence of Geological Events Can you figure out the geologic history of this rock outcrop? • Charles Lyell: Geological Pioneer • Documented James Hutton’s work • Defined “Uniformitarianism” 7. 5. 5. 8. 4. 6. 2. 3. 1.
Round Earth 250 BC to 1492 AD Sun center of our universe James Hutton: (1726-1797) King James Bible Da Vinci Marco Polo Tours 1000 500 0 500 1000 1500 2000 Crusades De Re Metalica Greece Rome Columbus 1492 Charles Lyell: Principles 1830 Charles Lyell: “Principles of Geology”, 1830 Hutton’s Geology & “Uniformitarianism”
Sir Charles Lyell, British Geology Compiler Principles of Geology, 1830 William “Strata” Smith: Pioneer Geologic Map Maker Uniformitarianism: Today’s Processes and rates of change define the past
Round Earth 250 BC to 1492 AD Sun center of our universe James Hutton: (1726-1797) King James Bible Da Vinci Marco Polo Tours William Smith 1000 500 0 500 1000 1500 2000 Crusades De Re Metalica Greece Rome Bishop Ussher Columbus 1492 Charles Lyell: William “Strata” Smith: English Surveyor Father of the Geological Map
William “Strata” Smith, English Engineer Smith created a Geologic Map of England while surveying construction of Canals
William “Strata” Smith, English Engineer Used fossils to Identify Rock Layers of the Same Age and Engineering Significance
William “Strata” Smith’s Geologic Map of Great Britain Charles Darwin: “The Origin of Species” The Book that changed the “world”: 1858
Round Earth 250 BC to 1492 AD Sun center of our universe James Hutton: (1726-1797) King James Bible Da Vinci Marco Polo Tours William Smith 1000 500 0 500 1000 1500 2000 Crusades De Re Metalica Greece Rome Bishop Ussher Columbus 1492 Charles Lyell: Charles Darwin Charles Darwin: “The Origin of Species” The Book that changed the “world”: 1858 Christianity Islam
Charles Darwin (1809-1892) “Field Biologist and Geologist Origin of Species: Natural Selection “The Survival of the Fittest” Charles Darwin, age 32
Two Hypotheses on the Origin of Species Continental Drift Alfred Wegener, 1880 to 1930 Gradual “Equilibrium” Punctuated Equilibrium Niles Eldredge & Steven Jay Gould, 1972
Alfred Wegener, 1880 to 1930 German Meteorologist Continental Drift Proposal 290 Million Years Ago 37 Million Years Ago An Example: North America
Continental Drift: North America drifts from Africa-South America And then
Continental Drift: North America drifts from South America & Eurasia from Africa from South America An Example: North America & Texas
Continental Drift North America through the Ages Absolute Age Dating: The Giant Step of the 1950 & 60’s Continental Drift Theory: Embraced in Europe in the 20’s & 30’s Accepted in USA in the 50’s & 60’s
“How old is our earth?” 1658 Bishop Ussher: 6000 years 1785 James Hutton: 30 to 50 million years 1830 Sir Charles Lyell: 80 million years Lord Kelvin, 24 to 40 million years Heat flow 1899 John Joly, 90 million years (sea salts) 1947 to 1960 Radioactivity, 4.8 BILLION YEARS OLD!! Future ??????
“Absolute” Age Dating of Rocks Absolute Age Continental Drift 1859 Charles Darwin, Origin of Species 1830 Charles Lyell, Principles of Geology 1815 William Smith, Fossil correlation maps 1788 Hutton, Theory of the Earth 1800 1900 2000
J. Laurence Kulp: Columbia University Geochemist research in radiometric dating included :-- Potassium-argon dating- Rubidium-strontium dating- Uranium-lead dating- Carbon-14 The Currently Accepted Geologic Ages
Geochemistry: Absolute Age Dating Absolute Age Dating Measuring the Decay of Radio Active Minerals
Age Dating using Uranium 238 Radioactive Decay of Uranium 238 Method Assumes: Today’s rate of Decay is the same as it was in the past Decay products Mapping the Rocks under the Oceans End Product Lead 206
Plate Tectonics: Deep Sea Rock Cores & Rock Structures Three American Oceanographic Institutions Columbia University/Lamont, New York Woods Hole, Massachusetts Scripps, San Diego, California
Lamont Geological Observatory, 1949 Maurice Ewing 1906 – 1974 Ocean Surveys: Bottom Cores Rock layers & structure (seismic) Gravity & Magnetic readings