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South Korea

South Korea

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South Korea

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  1. South Korea • Authoritarian Developmental (AD) • Economic development • Improving citizen capability (human development) • Elite coalitions with local capitalists • Coherent, effective bureaucracies

  2. South korea - politics • 1950s: Land reform, key success • Military coup (1961) start of authoritarian, developmental regime • Military support base; alliance with capitalists • Industrialization, economic development • Unions repressed; anti-communist propaganda • Elections rigged • Military rule ended (1987) with pro-democracy protests/demonstrations by students, workers, and middle class (product of regime’s developmental policies)

  3. South korea - policies • Industrial policy • State-led industrialization • Control over banks and assistance to particular industries/firms • Did not lead to inefficient firms, theft of state funds • Social policy • Social spending aimed at advancing industrialization agenda (e.g., education) and legitimation

  4. South korea - institutions • Military (and Korean Central Intelligence Agency) – suppression, indoctrination • Economic institutions • Economic planning board; 5-year plans • Political parties (electoral machines; not programmatic) • Façade of democracy

  5. South korea – post authoritarianism • Democratic transition (1987) • Authoritarian developmental regime left mixed legacy • New political cleavages • Expansion of social spending • Strengthened democratic institutions

  6. Nigeria • Authoritarian Predatory (AP) • No economic/human development • Elites rely on narrow coalitions • Policies enrich themselves and narrow network of supporters • Bureaucracies ineffective • Widespread corruption and patronage

  7. Nigeria - politics • British colonial legacy • 4th Republic (long periods of military rule) • Characterized by patron-client relations • Ruler Big men military/business people/regional leaders  clients (typically of same ethnic group) • Patronage/spoils = oil revenues, budget, contracts • Divide and rule/repression

  8. Nigeria – policies/institutions • Policies • Leaders main goal to accumulate wealth, not promote human development • Economic development enriches elite • Institutions • Government bureaucracies staffed through patronage appointments

  9. Nigeria – post-predatory regime • Transition to electoral democracy (1999) • Obstacles to democratic consolidation, human development • Ethnic/religious cleavages • Patron-client politics • Weak institutions • Struggle over balance of power between central government and states • division of oil revenues • secular vs. shari’a law

  10. chile • Democratic Developmental (DD) • Commitment to improving capabilities of poor • Economic growth/development through market-oriented policies • Political parties build broad coalitions of support • Policies appeal to large groups of voters • Effective/professional (merit-based) bureaucracies

  11. Chile - politics • Post-Pinochet (1990) • Class cleavage is central • Leaders balance interests of classes, promote capabilities of poorest groups • Gradual reforms, consultation with opposition • Programmatic parties, business and labor federations • Highly competent civil service • Broad appeal among middle and working classes

  12. Chile – policies/institutions • Policies • Economic growth, education and health care for the poor • Strengthened democracy • High income inequality high; business class remains powerful • Institutions • Designed to ensure conservative control over legislature • Although legislature and judiciary increasingly independent relative to executive

  13. brazil • Democratic Fragmented (DF) • Coalitions dominated by large farmers, big business, parts of middle class • Political parities = electoral machines • patronage, populism, identity politics • Civil service (bureaucracy) mixed • Competent officials • Highly politicized agencies headed by patronage appointments

  14. Brazil - politics • Developments post-WWII • Rapid industrialization, increasing conflict between social classes • Military seized power (1964-1985) • State-led industrialization • Social class most important political cleavage • Fragmented political organizations

  15. Brazil - policies • Recent presidents’ (Cardoso, Lula) policies aimed at promoting capabilities of poorest citizens • Movement toward market system • Increased social spending aimed at promoting citizens’ capabilities (health care, education) and affirmative action • Challenges • Significant room for improvement in citizens’ capabilities

  16. Brazil - Institutions • Fragmented party system • Fragmented bureaucracy (ineffective, not autonomous) • Fragmented legislature • Federal system • Difficult for social democratic presidents to make significant strides in promoting Democratic Developmental regime