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The Evolution of Sports Psychology

The Evolution of Sports Psychology. Sports Psychology involves the study of how psychological factors affect performance and how participation in sport and exercise affect psychological and physical factors .

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The Evolution of Sports Psychology

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  1. The Evolution of Sports Psychology

  2. Sports Psychology involves the study of how psychological factors affect performance and how participation in sport and exercise affect psychological and physical factors. In addition to instruction and training of psychological skills for performance improvement, applied sport psychology may include work with athletes, coaches, and parents regarding injury, rehabilitation, communication, team building, and career transitions.

  3. Before Sports Psychology Became a Profession • Before sports psychology, there was no real foundation to build a performance upon. Performers would rely on good luck to create peak performance situations. The discovery of sports psychology helped create a new threshold for competition and performance. Sports psychology was able to recognize key traits which people possessed during competitive situations. • Main theme for applied sports psychology-Thoughts that allow a person to choose their destiny and control the outcome of a competitive event. • Through sports psychology, performers can attempt to manufacture their own competitive destiny. The primary goal of early sports psychology was to "recognize how participation in sport exercise and physical activity enhances a person's development.” • Many years would pass before sport psychology would become applied to every day situations.

  4. The Man That Started It All • Norman Triplett. Born in 1861. • Psychologist at Indiana University • His long journey into sport psychology would begin one day while researching a group of runners.

  5. A young Norman Triplett discovered that people became more competitive in group situations. This was very mysterious to researchers at the time of its discovery. The first sport psychology discovery came from an experiment with runners. They discovered that a runner who performed in a group would achieve a much better time then the same runner attempting a solo time trial. There was some sort of invisible competitive engine which drove these groups of athletes. Norman Triplett realized that groups brought out a more intense demand for performance in athletes.

  6. Coleman Griffith • In 1918, Coleman Griffith established the first sport psychology lab in North America. • This laboratory was located at the University of Illinois. Much of Griffith's experiment had a heavy emphasis on being applicable to the 'real world’

  7. Not Just Applicable in Sports • An example in the business world: A businessman wants to gain a competitive edge against his coworkers. By using sports psychology he will become a superior employee when compared to other performers in the company. Sports psychology would give the employee effective goal achievement practices, performance anxiety management and a superior internal locust of control.

  8. It’s not Just about Luck • Another important concept which came from sports psychology stems from it's goal achievement practices. • Previous to this school of thought, many performers simply practiced blindly, hoping to recreate a good practice during the actual performance. • Hence, performers would blindly throw themselves into performance situations. • However, using the concepts of sports psychology, performers practice with a specific performance goal in mind and visualize exactly how the performance situation will go. By using their internal locus of control, they are able to perform consistently better than people who rely on luck.

  9. Current Organizations • These three organizations help create innovations for the vast world of sports psychology and has caused the world of sports psychology to greatly diversify. • The Association of Applied Sport Psychology (AASP)-The North American Society for Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity (NASPSPA) • Exercise and Sport Psychology - of the American Psychological Association (APA). • Each group is different and strives to achieve a different goal.

  10. First Appearance! • 1984 Olympic Games. • Events including: skiing, archery, shooting, boxing, cycling, fencing, synchronized swimming, track and field, volleyball, weight lifting. • It was failed to be accepted by the USOC • None of the psychologists were able to provide on-site consultation during actual competition.

  11. Sports Injuries An injury is not just a physical set-back. *Personal Experiences*

  12. Pete’s StoryACL, MCL, Meniscus

  13. Emily’s StoryFibula and Tibia

  14. Lindsay’s Story

  15. Alana’s StoryTorn Ligament in ankle and fractured fibula

  16. The Importance of Self Identity • The more committed and serious an individual is with their exercise then the greater contribution their athletic self-worth will have on their identity as a whole. If injury undermines an individual's athletic self-worth then, for the committed exerciser, this can lead to a dramatic decline in how they “value” themselves as a person.

  17. The Stress of Injury • Physical Well-Being 1. pain of injury 2. Physical rehab 3. Temporary physical restriction 4. Permanent Physical changes • Emotional Well-Being 1. Psychological trauma when injury occurs 2. Feelings of loss and grief 3. Threats to future performance 4. Emotional demands of treatment and rehabilitation

  18. Social well-being 1.Loss of important social roles 2.Separation from family, friends, and teammates 3.New relationships with treatment providers 4.Necessity of depending on others • Self-concept 1. Loss of sense of control 2. Dealing with altered self-image 3.Threat to important life goals and values 4. Necessity for decision-making under stressful circumstances

  19. Thoughts of Distress • Catastrophising: exaggerating the severity of the injury. At the time of injury: “I'll never be able to play again”. • Overgeneralisation: incorrectly extending the impact of the injury to aspects of performance, or other unrelated daily behaviours that are unlikely to be affected. • Personalisation: taking undue personal responsibility for injury or giving it some exaggerated meaning. example - “Why is it always me who gets injured?” • Selective Abstraction: attending to specific aspects of the injury that have little meaning in the overall context of the injury. Example “When Emily had this injury he never fully recovered and neither will I.” • Absolute/Dichotomous thinking: simplistically reducing complex experiences into all-or-none categories. example- “Because I am injured I am no use for the team.”

  20. Our Opinion! • In our opinion, based on our own experiences, we believe that the best form of psychological rehabilitation is through motivation to play again. Having a goal like recovering 110% percent for the next season pushed all of us to work hard in rehab.

  21. Works Cited • Competitive Advantage: Sports Psychology and Mental Toughness. Web. 04 Dec. 2011. <http://www.competitivedge.com/>. • "Injured Athletes: A Study Of Emotional Responses - Research and Read Books, Journals, Articles at Questia Online Library." Questia - The Online Library of Books and Journals. Web. 04 Dec. 2011. <http://www.questia.com/googleScholar.qst?docId=5002215929>. • "Psychological Aspects of Sport-Injury Rehabilitation: A Developmental Perspective." Web. 04 Dec. 2011. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC164909/>.

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