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Sports Psychology. Group Dynamics of Performance. Properties of Groups. Collective Identity. Group Unity. A Common Goal. Shared Purpose. Structured Patterns of Communication. Group Dynamics - Groups / Teams.
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Properties of Groups Collective Identity Group Unity A Common Goal Shared Purpose Structured Patterns of Communication
Group Dynamics - Groups / Teams • There must be interaction between individuals for them to be classified as a group! • The group members must get on with each other, and they need to have a collective identity. • The group must also have shared goals, targets, norms and values - and be prepared to achieve these goals collectively. • For a group to be classed as a team, the members need to depend upon each other and offer support to try to interact and achieve the team’s goals.
Steiner’s Model • Steiner designed a model to explain group effectiveness. Actual productivity = potential productivity - losses due to faulty group processes • Can you explain what this could mean? • What things could be included as faulty group processes?
Faulty Processes! • Motivational Losses- happen when one or some of the members don’t give 100% effort due to a decrease in motivation. • Often related to Social Loafing!! • Co-ordination Losses- happen when the team interact poorly, or ineffective strategies are used in a game. • Often termed the Ringlemann effect!!
Tasks! • In your groups, you must create a 10-step dance routine (this can be as simple or complex as you wish). • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PT2_F-1esPk
Stages of group development • Forming • Storming • Norming • Performing
Tasks! • In your groups, you must create a 10-step dance routine (this can be as simple or complex as you wish). • Now join another group and complete one of your routines. • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PT2_F-1esPk
The Ringlemann Effect – Co-ordination Losses • The Ringlemann effect is what happens when a group size increases. • Essentially the bigger the group, the operational effectiveness (co-ordination between team members) of the people in the group decreases. • This can be up to 50% in some cases! • This can also caused by motivational losses as well as co-ordination losses. • Explain what happened in the dance routine in relation to the Ringelmann effect. Why did this happen?
Social Loafing – Motivational Losses • Social Loafing is when group members do not put in 100% effort when in a group or team-based situation. • This is generally due to loss in motivation. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dt9MuKZGOiA • Rugby video
Task • How can we reduce social loafing? • Think of three strategies and explain them.
Cohesion Cohesion is a dynamic process that means a group tends to stick together and unite in the pursuit of its goals and objectives. Cohesion is split into two basic forms - Social and Task.
Social and Task Cohesion Social Cohesionrelates to how well the team-mates enjoy each others’ company. This directly relates to getting on with one another during a task. Task Cohesionis how well (or effective) the group or team-members work together to achieve common goals or objectives. Task cohesion is more closely related to sporting performance.
Carron’s Model of Cohesion Carron (1982) suggests that four main factors affect cohesion: • Environmental • Personal • Leadership • Team
Environment • Groups that are closer to each other (in terms of location) and smaller tend to be more cohesive. • Members have a greater opportunity to interact if the group is closer!
Personal • The individual characteristics of the group are vital! If players are motivated to achieve the goals and objectives... • are from similar backgrounds... • have similar attitudes... • have the same level of commitment... • There will be more satisfaction in the group and it is more likely to be cohesive!
Leadership Leadership is key to the cohesion of any group. • The style, compatibility, communication and the leaders’ own personality are key factors that affect a group’s ability.
Team If the team can stay together: • for long periods of time... • through a range of experiences (positive and negative)... • and become involved the decision-making process... • the group is more likely to become productive and cohesive!
Analysis • Using a team of your choice (professional or amateur), in pairs write down how Carron’s model of cohesion may have affected the cohesion of the group. • Think about the four factors of environmental, personal, leadership and team. • Try to give specific examples for each of the four factors discussed.
Developing Team Cohesion How can we develop a more cohesive team?
Task • What would make you want to continue to participate in a team, or stay in an exercise group? • Think of as many things as you can.
20 Markers – G453 Jan 2013 Using psychological theories and practical examples, explain why some teams seem to be more cohesive and successful than other teams of similar ability.