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Yoga and Sports Psychology

Yoga and Sports Psychology

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Yoga and Sports Psychology

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  1. Yoga and Sports Psychology Desiree Williams

  2. What is yoga? • Combine forces of the mind and body so they are not at odds with one another • Three components: • Pranayama • Asana • Meditation (Gilbert, 1999; Villien, Yu, Barthelemy, & Jammes, 2005)

  3. Pranayama

  4. Pranayama • Yogic breathing • Central to its ideals and goals • Breathing is a reflection of your emotions • Stress, anger, etc. can lead to shallow, rapid, irregular breathing patterns • Deep, regular breathing patterns can have the reverse effect, relieving stress and/or tension • Healthy babies breathe deeply and effortlessly using the abdomen (Gilbert, 1999; Weinberg & Gould, 2007))

  5. Pranayama and Sports Psychology • Root of most sports psychology methods for stress and anxiety reduction • Somatic (physical activation) anxiety reduction • Breath control before and/or during relaxation • Regulate pace and depth of breath to trigger a relaxation response • Often talk about a centering breath (Whythes; Weinberg & Gould, 2007)

  6. Asana

  7. Asanas • “seat” • Prepare body for rigors of meditation • Increases mental concentration • Focus is on one aspect of the pose and the present • Relax muscles through holding them in stretched position, relaxing muscle tensions (Gilbert, 1999)

  8. Asanas and Sports Psychology • Facilitates better body awareness, including proprioception • Athletes often unconscious of specific movement patterns during sport • Boyce article • Yoga makes movement patterns more conscious (Whythes; Oyao, 2000)

  9. Meditation • “Dhayna” is Sanskrit • Yogis’ CNS display tendencies toward parasympathetic dominance • As opposed to sympathetic nervous system • Parasympathetic • Active during resting and digestion • Body in anabolic state, rebuilding damaged cells and tissues (aids in recovery) • Decreased oxygen consumption, metabolic rate, breath rate, cardiac input, and blood lactates • Deep relaxation, increased mind-body coordination, faster reaction time, etc. (Oyao, 2000; Fredrick, 2008; Telles, Nagarathna, Nagendra, & Desiraju, 1993; Weinberg & Gould, 2007)

  10. Meditation and Sports Psychology • Like the relaxation response in Sports Psychology • Savasana • Essentially the same as Autogenic Training • Used to reduce cognitive anxiety • Warmth and heaviness in extremities and abdominal • Regulation of cardiac activity and breathing • Cooling of the forehead—“third eye” chakra (Salmon, Lush, Jablonski, & Sephton, 2009; Naoi & Ostrow, 2008; Weinberg & Gould, 2007)

  11. ELITE ATHLETE THAT USE YOGA

  12. “There is no way I could have played for as long as I did without yoga . . . My friends and teammates think I made a deal with the devil. But it was yoga that made my training complete. As preventative medicine, it’s unequalled.” (Wythes)

  13. References • Gilbert, C. (1999). Yoga and breathing. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, 3(1), 44-54. • Jenkins, L. (2004, March 3). Baseball; with help, piazza blends baseball with yoga. New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2004/03/03/sports/baseball-with-help-piazza-blends-baseball-with-yoga.html • Naoi, A. & Ostrow, A. (2008). The effects of cognitive and relaxation interventions on injured athletes’ mood and pain during rehabilitation. Athletic Insight, 10(1), Retrieved from http://www.athleticinsight.com/Vol10Iss1/InterventionsInjury.htm • Oyao, D. (2000). Yoga therapy and chiropractic for peak athletic performance. Dynamic Chiropractic, 18(17), Retrieved from http://www.chiroweb.com/mpacms/dc/article.php?id=31839 • Salmon, P., Lush, E., Jablonski, M., & Sephton, S.E. (2009). Yoga and mindfulness: Clinical aspects of an ancient mind/body practice. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 16, 59-72. • Telles, S., Nagarathna, R., Nagendra, H.R. & Desiraju, T. (1993). Physiological changes in sports teachers following 3 months of training in yoga. Indian Journal of Medical Sciences, 47 (10), 235-238. • Villien, F., Yu, M., Pierre, B. & Jammes, Y. (2005). Training to yoga respiration selectively increases respiratory sensation in healthy man. Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, 145, 85-96. • Weinberg, R.S., & Gould, D. (2007). Foundations of Sport and Exercise Psychology (4th ed.). Champaign: Human Kinetics. • Wythes, G. (n.d.). Yoga practice for sporting performance. Retrieved from http://www.illawarrayoga.com/greg/Yoga_and_Sports_Coaching_article.pdf