Sports Psychology UNIT IV Motivation
Why do you play your sport? • Take two or 3 minutes to reflect and write why you play
“Do you know what my favorite part of the game is? The opportunity to play” Mike Singletary (Pro Football Hall of Fame coach of 49ers)
What is Motivation • Motivation is the reason and effort behind all of your actions. • Motivation is want compels you to act • What Motivation is NOT: • Intensity • Overwhelming Positive thinking • Genetics
Answer these questions honestly: • What are the motives behind why you play sports? • Why are you in this class? • Why are you in school? • Why do you do your hobbies? • Do you LIKE what you do in life? Do you feel you are successful?
Myths about Motivation • Motivation is not intensity • Motivation is the WHY you play with such intensity • Positive thinking will NOT fix all motivational problems • Some people cannot be motivated • Everyone can be motivated if not you would sit there and do nothing
Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation • Extrinsic Motivation: • Becoming motivated from external rewards or incentives. • Money • Praise • To impress • Popularity • Scholarships • Avoid Disappointing family, friends, others • Avoid Punishment • Athletes who are only motivated by extrinsic factors are NOT truly invested in their sport or team. They are more prone to: • Quit • Choke under pressure • Not fully Committing to their team/program • Take plays off • Don’t perform when rewards are taken away
Extrinsic MotivationA desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment
Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation • Intrinsic Motivation: • Becoming motivated for internal (personal) reasons. • Intrinsically motivated athletes participate in their sports for the enjoyment and competition, NOT the potential rewards. • Intrinsic motivation is the highest level of performance because the performance comes within the athlete. • FLOW or THE ZONE
Intrinsic MotivationA desire to perform a behavior for its own sake
Intrinsic Joy Personal Satisfaction Internal Pride Need to improve Pleasure of achieving a difficult goal Extrinsic Money Popularity Praise Avoiding punishment Rewards (All-State, etc.) Intrinsic vs. ExtrinsicWhich are you?
What Kills Intrinsic Motivation • What kills Intrinsic Motivation? • EXTRINSIC REWARDS (i.e. Trophies, Medals, Scholarships, incentives, Threats, etc.) • These can be good and bad based on how the extrinsic reward is given and perceived. • If the reward is given to control performance/self worth = Bad • If the reward is given in recognition of internal factors = Good • The Key: Do things for your own personal satisfaction: • Go to school for knowledge, NOT grades • Play your sports for the love of it, NOT fame or money
Scholarships as External Reward Ryan Studies • Study #1 (1977) players on scholarship reported • They were enjoying football less • Exhibited less IM every year they held their scholarship • Lowest level of enjoyment occurred during their senior year
Scholarships as External Reward Ryan Studies • Study #2 (1980) • Surveyed male & female athletes in various sports • Scholarship players reported less IM than non-scholarship athletes • Male wrestlers and female athletes from 6 different sports reported higher levels of IM (Why?)
Increasing Intrinsic Motivation • Challenge yourself • Find success in every drill, practice and game • Set and fulfill goals • Vary your workouts • Self-Determination
Why are some athletes motivated, while others are not? • There are emotional and cognitive roots. • As children, we learn to associate achievement with positive emotions. • Children learn to associate achievement with expectations (intrinsic or extrinsic). - Intrinsic and Extrinsic expectations are usually set in place by parents, teachers, coaches and society.
Misplaced Motivation • “Will that be on the test?” • “I need an ‘A’ in this class. What can I do for extra credit?” • “Just tell me the right answer.” • “I NEED to be a starter or my parents will kill me.” • “I need to get at least a ____ Grade in this class or I will be ineligible” • Misplaced Motivation has a negative affect on a persons self-esteem, work ethic and ability to learn/perform at a higher level.