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School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Overview for Leadership

School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Overview for Leadership

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School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Overview for Leadership

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  1. School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Overview for Leadership George Sugai & Rob Horner OSEP Center on PBIS University of Connecticut Oct 12, 2007 www.pbis.org www.swis.org George.sugai@uconn.edu

  2. 3 Objectives • Rationale • Features • Implementation

  3. 2001 Surgeon General’s Report on Youth Violence: Recommendations • Change social context to break up antisocial networks • Improve parent effectiveness • Increase academic success • Create positive school climates • Teach & encourage individual social skills & competence

  4. School-based Prevention & Youth Development ProgrammingCoordinated Social Emotional & Academic Learning Greenberg et al. (2003) American Psychologist • Teach children social skills directly in real context • “Foster respectful, supportive relations among students, school staff, & parents” • Support & reinforce positive academic & social behavior through comprehensive systems • Invest in multiyear, multicomponent programs • Combine classroom & school- & community-wide efforts • Precorrect & continue prevention efforts

  5. Lessons Learned: White House Conference on School Safety • Students, staff, & community must have means of communicating that is immediate, safe, & reliable • Positive, respectful, predictable, & trusting student-teacher-family relationships are important • High rates of academic & social success are important • Positive, respectful, predictable, & trusting school environment/climate is important for all students • Metal detectors, surveillance cameras, & security guards are insufficient deterrents

  6. Characteristics of Safe School Center for Study & Prevention of Youth Violence • High academic expectations & performance • High levels of parental & community involvement • Effective leadership by administrators & teachers • A few clearly understood & uniformly enforced, rules • Social skills instruction, character education & good citizenship. • After school – extended day programs

  7. SW-PBS Logic! Successful individual student behavior support is linked to host environments or school climates that are effective, efficient, relevant, & durable (Zins & Ponti, 1990)

  8. Context Matters Examples Individual Student vs. School-wide

  9. Fortunately, we have a science that guides us to… • Assess these situations • Develop behavior intervention plans based on our assessment • Monitor student progress & make enhancements All in ways that can be culturally & contextually appropriate Crone & Horner, 2003

  10. However, context matters…. What factors influence our ability to implement what we know with accuracy, consistency, & durability for students with serious emotional & behavioral challenges?

  11. Messages! • Successful Individual student behavior support is linked to host environments or schools that are effective, efficient, relevant, & durable • Learning & teaching environments must be redesigned to increase the likelihood of behavioral & academic success

  12. 2 Worries & Ineffective Responses to Problem Behavior • Get Tough (practices) • Train-&-Hope (systems)

  13. Worry #1“Teaching” by Getting Tough Runyon: “I hate this f____ing school, & you’re a dumbf_____.” Teacher: “That is disrespectful language. I’m sending you to the office so you’ll learn never to say those words again….starting now!”

  14. Immediate & seductive solution….”Get Tough!” • Clamp down & increase monitoring • Re-re-re-review rules • Extend continuum & consistency of consequences • Establish “bottom line” ...Predictable individual response

  15. When behavior doesn’t improve, we “Get Tougher!” • Zero tolerance policies • Increased surveillance • Increased suspension & expulsion • In-service training by expert • Alternative programming …..Predictable systems response!

  16. But….false sense of safety/security! • Fosters environments of control • Triggers & reinforces antisocial behavior • Shifts accountability away from school • Devalues child-adult relationship • Weakens relationship between academic & social behavior programming

  17. Science of behavior has taught us that students…. • Are NOT born with “bad behaviors” • Do NOT learn when presented contingent aversive consequences ……..Do learn better ways of behaving by being taught directly & receiving positive feedback

  18. Worry #2:“Train & Hope”

  19. Supporting Social Competence & Academic Achievement 4 PBS Elements OUTCOMES Supporting Decision Making Supporting Staff Behavior DATA SYSTEMS PRACTICES Supporting Student Behavior

  20. Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior CONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE INSTRUCTIONAL & POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT ~5% Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior ~15% Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings ~80% of Students

  21. SWPBS & Achievement STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT Good Teaching Behavior Management Increasing District & State Competency &Capacity Investing in Outcomes, Data, Practices, &Systems

  22. Academic Systems Behavioral Systems • Intensive, Individual Interventions • Individual Students • Assessment-based • High Intensity • Intensive, Individual Interventions • Individual Students • Assessment-based • Intense, durable procedures • Targeted Group Interventions • Some students (at-risk) • High efficiency • Rapid response • Targeted Group Interventions • Some students (at-risk) • High efficiency • Rapid response • Universal Interventions • All students • Preventive, proactive • Universal Interventions • All settings, all students • Preventive, proactive Designing School-Wide Systems for Student Success 1-5% 1-5% 5-10% 5-10% 80-90% 80-90%

  23. Team GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS: “Getting Started” CO PBS Agreements FCPS Data-based Action Plan Evaluation Implementation

  24. Team-led Process Behavioral Capacity Priority & Status Representation Team Data-based Decision Making Administrator Communications

  25. Non-Teaching Family Representation Specialized Support Administrator Community Student Teaching Start with Team that “Works.”

  26. Working Smarter

  27. Sample Teaming Matrix

  28. Referrals by Problem Behavior

  29. Referrals per Location

  30. Referrals per Student

  31. Referrals by Time of Day

  32. School-wide Positive Behavior Support Systems Classroom Setting Systems Nonclassroom Setting Systems Individual Student Systems School-wide Systems

  33. Classroom Setting Systems • Classroom-wide positive expectations taught & encouraged • Teaching classroom routines & cuestaught & encouraged • Ratio of 6-8 positive to 1 negative adult-student interaction • Active supervision • Redirections for minor, infrequent behavior errors • Frequent precorrections for chronic errors • Effective academic instruction & curriculum

  34. Nonclassroom Setting Systems • Positive expectations & routines taught & encouraged • Active supervision by all staff • Scan, move, interact • Precorrections & reminders • Positive reinforcement

  35. Individual Student Systems • Behavioral competence at school & district levels • Function-based behavior support planning • Team- & data-based decision making • Comprehensive person-centered planning & wraparound processes • Targeted social skills & self-management instruction • Individualized instructional & curricular accommodations

  36. School-wide Systems 1. Common purpose & approach to discipline 2. Clear set of positive expectations & behaviors 3. Procedures for teaching expected behavior 4. Continuum of procedures for encouraging expected behavior 5. Continuum of procedures for discouraging inappropriate behavior 6. Procedures for on-going monitoring & evaluation

  37. Few positive SW expectations defined, taught, & encouraged

  38. Expectations & behavioral skills are taught & recognized in natural context

  39. Teaching Academics & Behaviors

  40. TEACHING MATRIX Expectations

  41. TEACHING MATRIX Expectations

  42. Acknowledging SW Expectations: Rationale • To learn, humans require regular & frequent feedback on their actions • Humans experience frequent feedback from others, self, & environment • Planned/unplanned • Desirable/undesirable • W/o formal feedback to encourage desired behavior, other forms of feedback shape undesired behaviors

  43. Acknowledge & Recognize

  44. Are “Rewards” Dangerous? “…our research team has conducted a series of reviews and analysis of (the reward) literature; our conclusion is that there is no inherent negative property of reward. Our analyses indicate that the argument against the use of rewards is an overgeneralization based on a narrow set of circumstances.” • Cameron, 2002 • Cameron & Pierce, 1994, 2002 • Cameron, Banko & Pierce, 2001

  45. Reinforcement Wisdom! • “Knowing” or saying “know” does NOT mean “will do” • Students “do more” when “doing works”…appropriate & inappropriate! • Natural consequences are varied, unpredictable, undependable,…not always preventive

  46. Relevant & Measurable Indicators Efficient Input, Storage, & Retrieval Team-based Decision Making & Planning Evaluation Continuous Monitoring Effective Visual Displays Regular Review SWIS FRMS

  47. CONTACT INFO George.sugai@uconn.edu Robh@uoregon.edu www.pbis.org