Articles of Confederation & Constitutional Convention Schaumburg High School
First American Gov’t (1777) (1781) Written by 2nd Continental Congress – John Dickinson (PA) Battle between Radicals & Reconciliationists Problems Unable to collect taxes Unable to regulate trade No Executive to enforce laws No Judiciary to interpret laws Consensus needed to amend the Articles Articles of Confederation
Articles of Confederation • The AOC reflected the prevailing political philosophy • Nationalists emerge pushing for a change! • Alexander Hamilton • Jon Morris • It could not handle America’s challenges • Shay’s Rebellion
Federalists • Supporters of a new, more highly centralized government • Supported national organization/local liberties • Alexander Hamilton
Antifederalists • Supporters of a loose organization of states under the Articles of Confederation • Feared another anarchy • Thomas Jefferson
Constitutional Convention • 5/25/1787- 9/17/1787 • A meeting of nationalists to revise or overthrow the AOC to make national government stronger • 74 men elected • 55 men attended • 16 attendees did not sign it • 39 served in Cont Congress • 21 fought in Amer. Rev. • 8 signed the Decl of Indep.
A Bundle of Compromises • Big States versus Small States (Most important) • Representation in both houses of Congress? • How to elect the president? • Taxation? Proportional or equal? • North versus South • Slavery • Tariffs • Nationalists versus States Rights • Rural versus Urban
Main Issue: Liberty vs Order • How much power do you give the government to maintain order yet not hinder or control liberty? • Amend AOC or overthrow it? • Great Compromise: Proportional rep. in House & equality in Senate • Main reason small states ratified the Constitution • Slaves counted as 3/5 of a person for taxes & representation • North got its Navigation laws passed then
John Dickinson • Pennsylvania • Did not sign Dec. of Indep. • Author of AOC • Leading champion of small states
Alexander Hamilton • New York • Responsible for calling convention • Author of Federalist Papers • Washington aid in Amer. Rev. • 1st Sec. of Treasury • Killed by Aaron Burr in a duel
George Washington • Virginia • Brought legitimacy to the convention • Worried about his reputation by attending “illegal” convention • Winner of Amer. Rev. • 1st President of the United States of America
Gouverneur Morris • Pennsylvania • Most conservative & vocal delegate • Leading anti-slavery voice • Constitution was his words
Robert Morris • Pennsylvania • Superintendent of Finance • 3rd or 4th most important delegate • Spoke rarely but influentially • Financed the war
Benjamin Franklin • Pennsylvania • Oldest delegate at 87 • Added legitimacy • Slept throughout most of the convention • Suffering from the gout
James Madison • Virginia • Wrote the Constitution • Author of Federalist Papers • Father of Bill of Rights • Checks & Balances • 4th Pres. Of the USA
Other Issues • The power of the Executive Branch • Citizenships, Immigration, & admission of new states • Federalists vs Antifederalists • State ratifications-All states had conventions to ratify the Constitution • 1st to ratify – Delaware • Last to ratify – NC & RI – Why?