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The Master Budget

The Master Budget

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The Master Budget

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  1. The Master Budget Chapter 7

  2. Objective 1 • Explain the major features • and advantages of a • master budget.

  3. Goals and objectives Advantages of Budgets Budgets A budget allows systematic rather than chaotic reaction to change.

  4. Compels managers to think ahead Provides definite expectations that are the best framework to evaluate performance Aids managers in coordinating their efforts Advantages of Budgets

  5. Types of Budgets Strategic plan Long-range plan Capital budget Master budget Continuous budget

  6. Strategic Plan The most forward-looking budget is the strategic plan, which sets the overall goals and objectives of the organization.

  7. Long-Range Plan The strategic plan leads to long-range planning, which produces forecasted financial statements for five- to ten-year periods.

  8. Capital Budget Long-range plans… are coordinated with capital budgets, which detail the planned expenditures for facilities, equipment, new products, and other long-term investments.

  9. Sales Production Distribution Finance Master Budget The master budget summarizes the planned activities of all subunits of an organization.

  10. are a common form of master budgets that add a month in the future as the month just ended is dropped. Continuous Budget Rolling budgets...

  11. Components of Master Budget Operating budget Financial budget

  12. Objective 2 • Follow the principal steps in • preparing a master budget.

  13. Steps in Preparing theMaster Budget The principal steps in preparing the master budget are: 1. Basic data a. Sales budget b. Cash collections from customers c. Purchases budget d. Disbursements for purchases e. Operating expense budget f. Disbursements for operating expenses

  14. 2. Operating budget 3. Financial budget Steps in Preparing theMaster Budget 1. Basic data

  15. Objective 3 • Prepare the operating budget • and the supporting schedules.

  16. Cash collections from customers Purchases budget Disbursements for purchases Operating expenses budget Disbursements for operating expenses Operating Budget Sales budget

  17. Cash Collections It is easiest to prepare budgeted cash collections at the same time as the sales budget. Cash collections include the current month’s cash sales plus the previous month’s credit sales.

  18. Purchases Budget Budgeted purchases = Desired ending inventory + Cost of goods sold – Beginning inventory

  19. Disbursements for Purchases For example, 50% of the current month’s purchases and 50% of the previous month’s purchases may be included. The total disbursements are then used in preparing the cash budget.

  20. Operating Expense Budget The budgeting of operating expenses depends on several factors. Month-to-month changes in sales volume and other cost-driver activities directly influence many operating expenses.

  21. Operating Expense Budget Expenses driven by sales volume include sales commissions and many delivery expenses.

  22. Operating Expense Budget Other expenses are not influenced by sales or other cost-driver activity and are regarded as fixed, within appropriate relevant ranges. Rent Depreciation Insurance Salaries

  23. Operating Expense Disbursements Disbursements for operating expenses are based on the operating expense budget.

  24. Operating Expense Disbursements For example, 50% of last month’s and this month’s wages and commissions plus miscellaneous and rent expenses may be included. The total of these disbursements is then used in preparing the cash budget.

  25. Budgeted Income Statement The income statement will be complete after addition of the interest expense, which is computed after the cash budget has been prepared. Budgeted income from operations is often a benchmark for judging management performance.

  26. Objective 4 • Prepare the financial budget.

  27. Cash Budget The cash budget has the following major sections: • available cash balance • cash receipts disbursements • cash needed from (or used for) financing • ending cash balance

  28. Cash Budget Available cash balance = Beginning cash balance – Minimum cash balance desired. Cash receipts depend on collections from customers’ accounts receivable, cash sales, and on other operating income sources.

  29. Cash Budget Cash disbursements for purchases depend on the credit terms extended by suppliers and the bill-paying habits of the buyer. Payroll depends on wage, salary, and commission terms and on payroll dates.

  30. Cash Budget Disbursements for some costs and expenses depend on contractual terms for installment payments, mortgage payments, rents, leases, and miscellaneous items. Other disbursements include outlays for fixed assets, long-term investments, dividends, and the like.

  31. Cash Budget Management determines the minimum cash balance desired depending on the nature of the business and credit arrangements.

  32. Cash Budget Financing requirements depend on how the total cash available compares with the total cash needed. Needs include the disbursements plus the desired ending cash balance.

  33. Cash Budget Ending cash balance = Beginning cash balance + Receipts – Disbursements + Cash from financing The cash from financing can be either positive (borrowing) or negative (repayment).

  34. Budgeted Balance Sheet The final step in preparing the master budget is to construct the budgeted balance sheet that projects each balance sheet item in accordance with the business plan.

  35. Objective 5 • Explain the difficulties • of sales forecasting.

  36. Sales Forecast A sales forecast is a prediction of sales under a given set of conditions. Sales forecasts are usually prepared under the direction of the top sales executive.

  37. Factors to Consider When Forecasting Sales Past patterns of sales Estimates made by the sales force General economic conditions Competitors’ actions

  38. Factors to Consider When Forecasting Sales Changes in the firm’s prices Changes in product mix Market research studies Advertising and sales promotion plans

  39. Objective 6 • Anticipate possible human • relations problems caused • by budgets.

  40. Getting Employees to Accept the Budget To fully benefit from budgets, an organization needs the support of all the firm’s employees. The attitude of top management will heavily influence lower-level workers’ and managers’ attitudes.

  41. Getting Employees to Accept the Budget Another problem that can negate the benefits of budgeting arises if budgets stress one set of performance goals, but employees and managers are rewarded for different performance measures.

  42. Participative Budgeting Budgets created with the active participation of all affected employees are generally more effective than budgets imposed on subordinates.

  43. Functional Budgeting The budgeting focus is on preparing budgets for various functions such as production, selling, and administrative support.

  44. Activity-Based Master Budgets This budgetary system emphasizes the planning and control purpose of cost management.

  45. Objective 7 • Use a spreadsheet to • develop a budget. • (Appendix 7)

  46. Spreadsheets Spreadsheet software for personal computers is a powerful and flexible tool for budgeting. Arithmetic errors are virtually nonexistent. Spreadsheets can be used to make a mathematical model of the organization.

  47. End of Chapter 7