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SUBSAHARAN AFRICA PBS Africa Website and Slideshows

SUBSAHARAN AFRICA PBS Africa Website and Slideshows

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SUBSAHARAN AFRICA PBS Africa Website and Slideshows

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  1. SUBSAHARAN AFRICAPBS Africa Website and Slideshows

  2. Sub-Saharan Africa • Plateau, Waterfall, Savanna, Rainforest, and Desert • Poorest continent • Only region to get poorer over last 25 years • World’s largest number of displaced people and refugees • Debt crisis • Most rural continent, though cities growing very fast • Village life and subsistence agriculture important • Glorious wildlife still exists • Legacies of Colonialism • Cash crop economies, ethnic conflict, flawed transport systems • Medical Crises, including most HIV/AIDs in world • Most of world’s remaining Animists • But missionaries spreading Christianity and Islam • War and Failed Political Leadership Common • Few successful democracies

  3. African LandscapePlateau, Waterfall, Savanna, Rainforest, and Desert pg. 452 • Plateau – high tableland • Highest in: • Ethiopian Highlands • Drakensberg Mtns. • Lesotho & RSA

  4. Major Rivers Niger Congo Blue Nile Victoria/White Nile Zambezi 3 1 4 2 5 pg. 452

  5. Rivers • Rapids and Waterfalls… • Limits transportation • Congo… • Good for Tourism • Whitewater Rafting • Hydroelectric Production

  6. Beautiful Waterfalls Blue Nile Falls Victoria Falls

  7. Victoria Falls On Zambezi River Zim/Zam border Zam Zim pg. 502

  8. Rift Valleys • Crust pulls apart • Block of crust sinks

  9. Rift Valley - Kenya

  10. Rift Valleys Often have long, narrow lakes

  11. Rift Valley Lakes Lake Tanganyika Lake Malawi pg. 452

  12. Volcanoes Near rift valleys Eastern Congo Mt. Kenya Mt. Kilimanjaro… pg. 452

  13. Kilimanjaro

  14. Mt. Kenya

  15. Climate and Vegetation Tropical Rainforest Congo Basin & coast of W. Africa Diseases Malaria Anopheles Mosquito pg. 455

  16. GHANA

  17. Tropical Savanna Grasses and scattered trees Dry winter, Rainy summer pg. 455

  18. Savanna • Wildlife • Tourism

  19. Best Wildlife Countries • Kenya & Tanzania • Zimbabwe, Botswana & Republic of S.A.

  20. Poaching • Elephant • Ivory Tusks • 2.5 million (1970) • 1.8 million (1978) • 350,000 (1997) • 600,000 (2005)

  21. Rhino • Horn used as aphrodisiac in Asia • 65,000 Black Rhinos in 1982 • 2300 (1992) • 3600 (2004)

  22. Savanna • Masai • Nomadic Herding of Cattle

  23. Cattle Herding • Destroys wilderness • Nat. Veg. Lost • Soil compacted, eroded • Loss of Wildlife Habitat • Tsetse Fly – sleeping sickness • Disease to Animals & Humans • Wildlife Unaffected • Benefits Wildlife by preventing spread of domesticated cattle

  24. Deserts Somalia Kalahari Botswana Namib Namibia pg. 455

  25. Kalahari Semi-Desert Bushmen… pg. 455

  26. Bushmen Languages (Khoisan) • “Clicking” pg. 462

  27. Kalahari Okavango Delta… pg. 502

  28. NAMIB DESERT

  29. Sub-Saharan Africa • Poorest continent • Only region to get poorer over last 25 years • World’s largest number of displaced people and refugees • Debt crisis • 44% of population younger than 15 • In 1990s number of those living in “extreme poverty (<$1/day) rose from 242 million to 300 million+ Angola, 2000

  30. Rates of Natural Increase

  31. Sub-Saharan Africa • Most rural continent, though cities growing very fast • Village life and subsistence agriculture important • 69% of population is rural • Glorious wildlife still exists Masai Village, Kenya Village, Zimbabwe Rwandan Farm

  32. Sub-Saharan Africa • Most rural continent, though cities growing very fast • Village life and subsistence agriculture important • Glorious wildlife still exists Lagos, Nigeria

  33. Sub-Saharan Africa • Most rural continent, though cities growing very fast • Village life and subsistence agriculture important • Glorious wildlife still exists Lagos, Nigeria Cape Town, Black Township, S. Africa

  34. Legacy of Colonialism • Cash crop economies, ethnic conflict, flawed transport systems Oil Palm Production Rail Systems Connect Cities to Ports, Not Other Cities Coffee in Kenya

  35. Slavery • Impacted West Africa • Angola • Senegal • Ghana

  36. SLAVE CASTLE GHANA

  37. European Colonialism Britain East France Northwest Belgium Congo Portugal Mozambique Angola Spain Equatorial Guinea pg. 467

  38. BERLIN CONFERENCE1884 • 14 countries divided up Africa without consideration of cultures; political and tribal fragmentation were the result. • Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Sweden-Norway (unified from 1814-1905), Turkey, and the United States of America. • Of these, France, Germany, Great Britain, and Portugal were the major colonizers of Africa

  39. INDEPENDENT STATES IN AFRICA 1960 1950 1970 INDEPENDENT

  40. SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA’SECONOMIC CHALLENGE • Economic growth rate- 1.5% - world’s lowest • The region’s 646 million people have a combined GNP of less than $150 billion, roughly the same as Belgium and its 10 million people. • Population - growing at a rate of 2.6% annually, vs 1.7% for South America and 1.9% for South Asia

  41. Medical Crises, including most HIV/AIDs in world

  42. MEDICAL GEOGRAPHY • Studies spatial aspects of disease and health • Africa is an extraordinary laboratory. -- Disease incidence and diffusion -- Widespread nutritional deficiencies • Millions suffer from: • malaria - river blindness • yellow fever - sleeping sickness • AIDS - bilharzia/schistosomiasis

  43. Figure 17-A (b), p. 450

  44. MEDICAL GEOGRAPHY • Endemic -- Exists in equilibrium with the population -- Many develop an immunity of sorts -- Saps energy, lowers resistance, shortens lives • Epidemic -- Sudden outbreak at local, regional scale • Pandemic -- Worldwide spread

  45. MALARIA WIDESPREAD INCIDENCE

  46. SLEEPING SICKNESS Tsetse Fly WIDESPREAD INCIDENCE

  47. Most of world’s remaining Animists • But missionaries spreading Christianity and Islam

  48. The Roots of Religion • Animism (Shamanism) -the belief that all objects, animals, and beings are “animated” or possess a spirit and a conscious life. Also called shamanism because of the prominence of a shaman. • Such beliefs are common among hunter-gatherers. • 10% of Africans follow such traditional ethnic religions. • These beliefs are losing ground to Christianity and Islam throughout Africa. Nigerian Shaman

  49. War and Failed Political Leadership Common • Few successful democracies; political violence common • Free press is rare • Conflicts limit foreign investment

  50. Some of Africa’s Current Dictators Teodoro Obiang Nguema, Equatorial GuineaAge 61. In power since 1979 coup. Corrupt. Robert Mugabe, ZimbabweAge 80. In power since 1980. Breaking up white-owned farms. Nepotism. King Mswati III, SwazilandAge 35. In power since 1986. Lavish lifestyle. Poor subjects. 11 wives. 3 Fiances. 25 children.