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  2. How To Do Things With DiagramsSeptember 13, 2012 Barry Smith

  3. How to do things, with diagrams Wiggers Diagram, Cardiac Cycle, Left Ventricle

  4. Two directions of fit • world-to-mind and mind-to-world direction of fit • what begins as a plan, ends as a record (whose truthmaker – if it is a true record – is: the journey you took)

  5. Create an intellectual property right • from original Danish Patent DK92683Cfor Leggo bricks (Legetøjsbyggeelement)

  6. How to do things with diagrams create a real estate parcel

  7. Create a country Sykes-Piqyot agreement, 16 May 1916

  8. Some more examples musical score blueprint, building plan organizational chart military operations plan

  9. speech acts vs. document acts speech acts are evanescent documents endure, and so can be used in multiple ways in succession documents can tie people together in complex endeavors (often: via diagrams) the different types of institutional systems to which documents belong more on time series graphs Overview

  10. We tell people how things are (assertives) We try to get them to do things (directives) We commit ourselves to doing things (commissives) We bring about changes in the world through utterances (declarations) (“I name this ship ...”) We express our feelings and attitudes (expressives) Types of Speech Act

  11. Directions of fit • mind-to-world: an assertion is about something in the world • world-to-mind: a request is designed to change the world to conform to the mind of the requester • automatic mind-to-world-and-world-to-mind: I say “I promise to pay you $1000 dollars” and thereby make it true that I promise to pay you $1000 dollars

  12. claims and obligations and deontic powers* are brought into existence by the performance of speech acts (acts of promising, marrying, accusing ... ) The Construction of Social Reality (1989) * rights, relations of authority, debts, property-relations, permissions, ... The Searle thesis

  13. such as organizations, rules, prices, debts, standardized transactions Searle: We make it the case by Declaration that a Y status function exists in a context C(Making the Social World, 2010, p. 13). Standing declaration: “I declare (by posting this notice in my café) that the price for Kronenbourg demi today will be 10 Belgian Francs” Speech acts and document acts can create new kinds of entities

  14. One-off obligation-creations: I request that you bring me a beer. By signing this IOU note I commit myself to paying you $1000 next Tuesday. One-off, one-person obligations

  15. Group obligations

  16. Obligation-creations can form networks • signatures link to persons and acts of acceptance • stamps link to administrative offices • alphanumeric IDs link to multiple other documents Diagram with deontic powers

  17. Obligation-creations can form series

  18. Diagram-vehiculated question series

  19. the line between diagrams and documents and between both of these is not sharp increasingly, too, we will need to deal also with algorithmically enhanced diagrams / documents

  20. Blueprint

  21. Diagrams as continuants time 1: blueprint as plan (world-to-mind direction of fit) time 2: blueprint as record of process of building of product (mind-to-world direction of fit)

  22. Diagrams with deontic powers chain of commitments from order to blueprint creation to acceptance of blueprint to process of building in accordance with blueprint to acceptance of finished building

  23. Diagrams create, but they also can be used to amend, e.g. an organization =====

  24. and also to annul ΑΚΥΡΟΣ

  25. Obligation series distributed across large groups

  26. and can be steered by diagrams e.g. by those sorts of diagrams and nested sub-diagrams we call musical scores

  27. scores and subscoresplans and subplans

  28. Hector Berlioz, Le corsaire, Overture, H 101

  29. How to do things, with diagrams • An orchestral musical work (as something that can be rehearsed, performed and reperformed) • could not exist without a score • could not be rehearsed without scores and subscores • could not be performed without (either) scores or rehearsal

  30. How to do things with scores • the author authors the score, thereby creates a possibility of performance • he thereby creates, and at the same time baptizes, the work • conductor and orchestra use the score to form a plan (including subplans) and commit themselves to its execution • they use the score as a set of instructions to rehearse execution of their plan (develop score-coordinated expertise) • they may mark up their copies of the score to add instructions • they schedule a concert, thereby committing themselves to a prospective audience to perform that work • they perform that work • they may mark up their copy of the score to record errors in that performance

  31. Directions of fit • automatic score-to-world-and-world-to-score: Berlioz completes the score and thereby brings into being a work that is precisely in conformance to the score • world-to-score: the score tells the world how to shape itself to create a performance that is in conformance with the score • score-to-world: the score, when the performance is completed, serves as a record of the performance

  32. The role of shared practice This sort of coordinated activity is impossible without shared expertise, developed • through training and individual practice • through practice and rehearsal in small group, yielding • reusable, recombinable expertise modules

  33. training in how to execute diagrams

  34. Army uses big diagrams

  35. and elaborately nested subdiagrams US military operations center in Afghanistan

  36. Warfighters’ Information Sharing Environment Intelligence Fire Support Targeting Maneuver & Blue Force Tracking Civil-Military Operations Air Operations Logistics

  37. military plan (map overlay)

  38. Military Symbology Symbols for Military Organizations Depict functions/capabilities Depict Roles: Friend, Adversary, Neutral Sample of Military Standard 2525 Military Symbology

  39. Military Symbology Sample of Military Standard 2525 Military Symbology

  40. Military Symbology Sample of Military Standard 2525 Military Symbology

  41. Military Symbology Buildings, Structures, Vehicles, Formations, Geographic Areas, and People can all be in a Target_Role for a period of time These symbols designate Targets on a map A Target_Role is created by way of the targeting process A Role is a Temporal Property of some entity Sample of Military Standard 2525 Military Symbology

  42. Military Symbology Sample of Military Standard 2525 Military Symbology

  43. Military Symbology Sample of Military Standard 2525 Military Symbology

  44. Map Overlays

  45. Task Organizing Task-Organizing — The act of designing an operating force, support staff, or logistic package of specific size and composition to meet a unique task or mission. Characteristics to examine when task-organizing the force include, but are not limited to: training, experience, equipage, sustainability, operating environment, enemy threat, and mobility. (JP 3-05) Ontological methods are used in the process of Task-Organizing A Task-Organization is the Output (Product) of Task Organizing A Task-Organization is a Plan or part of a Plan A Plan is an Information Content Entity