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FARMING SYSTEMS

FARMING SYSTEMS

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FARMING SYSTEMS

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  1. FARMING SYSTEMS IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD

  2. THE TERM • FARMING SYSTEMSrefers to an ordered combination of crops grown, livestock produced, husbandry methods and cultural practices followed.

  3. CLASSIFICATION • TREE CROPS • fruit, nuts, beverage crop, rubber, pharmaceuticals, oil, lumber, paper, sweeteners, ornamentals, fuel, etc.

  4. CLASSIFICATION(continued) • TILLAGE CROPS • cereal grains, oilseeds, vegetable crops, sugar crops, fiber crops, small fruits, coarse grains, etc.

  5. CLASSIFICATION(continued) • ALTERNATING TILLAGE CROPS • hay crops, silage, green chop, “fodder”, etc. (i.e. sorghums, millet, alfalfa, small grains, grass, etc.)

  6. CLASSIFICATION(continued) • GRASSLAND/GRAZING LAND • native range/grass, forbs, sage, shrubs, legumes, etc.

  7. FARMING SYSTEMS • The particularFarming Systemfound in a country or region is the result of a unique combination of factors, many of which are causative or associative in nature (i.e. Bananas and Wheat).

  8. FACTORS/CONDITIONS • Influencing/impacting the development of specific Farming Systems. • Climate, Elevation, Soil, Moisture, Soil stability, Pests, Technological adaptation & feasibility, Economic infrastructure and Social Infrastructure.

  9. FACTORS IMPACTING FARMING SYSTEMS • Climate - temperature & rainfall • Elevation - temperature • Soil - fertility, pH & organic matter • Land (physical) - soil type, texture, depth, permeability & slope. • Moisture - natural rainfall, irrigation, drainage, flood control, etc.

  10. FACTORS IMPACTINGFARMING SYSTEMS(continued) • Soil stability - erosion & salinity • Pests - weeds, insects, diseases & predators. • Technological adaptation andfeasibility - equipment, cultural practices, chemicals, new cultivars, etc.

  11. FACTORS IMPACTING FARMING SYSTEMS (continued) • Economic infrastructure - market access, government regulations, transportation system & processing industry. • Social infrastructure - work ethic, class/caste system, land tenure, education, diet, culture & dissemination of information.

  12. MAJOR FACTORS IMPACTING THE CLASSIFICATION OF FARMING SYSTEMS • Climate • Level of Technology • Infrastructure • Production Incentives • Political Constraints • Human Resources

  13. SUB - CLASSIFICATION • Very Extensive - broad, much variation, inter cropping, strip cropping, involving several different different crops or livestock species. • Extensive • Intensive • Very Intensive - double cropping, crop rotation, crop residue management, erosioncontrol.

  14. NATURE & EXTENT OF FARMING SYSTEMS • Subsistence farming - produces only enough food and fiber for individual or family needs. 1) Involves the gathering/collection of food, fuel & building materials, 2) Rarely ventures into situations involving commercial production, 3) Requires little in the way of inputs, marketaccess, monetary exchange, etc.

  15. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE(continued) • Hunter/Gathers • Nomads/Bedouins • Slash & Burn

  16. NATURE & EXTENT(continued) • Commercial Farming Systems -characterized by the commercial production of agricultural commodities for specific markets and capital intensive.

  17. TYPES OF COMMERCIAL FARMING SYSTEMS • Tropical & sub-tropical plantations • Temperate zone grain production • Vegetable & fruit production • Livestock production • Mixed crop & livestock production

  18. Sustainable Agriculture • Protects soil fertility • Optimizes management & resources • Reduces the use of nonrenewable resources • Promotes opportunities in family farming • Achieves integration of natural biological cycles & controls

  19. COLLECTIVE FARMING SYSTEMS • Agricultural operations in nations with centrally planned economies. • Usually operates under a rigid system of collective or state farms.