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How much grammar do I need to know?

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How much grammar do I need to know?

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  1. Monday, 10 March 2014 How much grammar do I need to know? www.geoffbarton.co.uk

  2. GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS 1 - Sentence types (co-ordination & subordination) 2 -Modification 3 - Cohesion - -

  3. GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS SENTENCE TYPES - 1 -

  4. There are 3 types of sentences: • Simple sentences • Compound sentences (coordination) • Complex sentences (subordination) • Using a variety of sentences will improve your writing.

  5. 1: SIMPLE SENTENCES Seamus smells rather badly Seamus is asleep Seamus has a chronic haemorrhoid problem Seamus likes warmth Old Seamus is positively knackered Old Seamus used to be fun

  6. 1: SIMPLE SENTENCES Seamus smells rather badly • Essential ingredients: • Subject • Verb chain • Tells us about one thing Seamus is asleep Seamus has a chronic haemorrhoid problem Seamus likes warmth Old Seamus is positively knackered Old Seamus used to be fun

  7. 1: SIMPLE SENTENCES Statements: The beach is beautiful. The sea is calm. Questions: Where are we? Why is the sea calm? Commands: Go to the beach. Buy me a choc-ice. Sentence functions ...

  8. 1: SIMPLE SENTENCES In action ...

  9. Kipper wanted a dog. Everyone wanted a dog. They went to the dogs’ home. They looked at the dogs. Kipper wanted this dog. It was too big. Biff wanted this dog. It was too little. Mum wanted this dog. It was too strong. Everyone liked this dog. They took the dog home. A New Dog (OUP)

  10. Effect …? A New Dog (OUP)

  11. BUILD YOUR SKILLS

  12. Simple sentences in context ... • Giveclarity • Can become repetitive • Can be very short • Are separated by full stops, not commas • Can be great forinstructions, factual writing, texts for children, suspense

  13. GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS COMPOUND SENTENCES / COORDINATION - -

  14. 2: COMPOUND SENTENCES The woman is worried and she looks out of the window and she wants to see someone but she is all alone and there is no one there.

  15. 2: COMPOUND SENTENCES The woman is worried and she looks out of the window and she wants to see someone but she is all alone and there is no one there.

  16. 2: COMPOUND SENTENCES The woman is worried. and She looks out of the window. and She wants to see someone. but She is all alone. and There is no one there.

  17. 2: COMPOUND SENTENCES • Essential ingredients: • Simple sentences joined by the conjunctions • And • But • Or

  18. 2: COMPOUND SENTENCES This creates coordination I like fish and I enjoy chips I adore fish but I hate chips I enjoy fish, or I did as a child

  19. 2: COMPOUND SENTENCES This creates coordination I like fish and I enjoy chips I adore fish but I hate chips I enjoy fish, or I did as a child

  20. 2: COMPOUND SENTENCES VISUAL GRAMMAR

  21. 2: COMPOUND SENTENCES Grammar and effect ... I am four and my sister is three and she is often cross but today she is happy and we are going for a picnic but I am taking my bucket and spade and we will play on the beach but not if it’s raining and then we will come home and I will watch Tweenies and … (YAWN)

  22. 2: COMPOUND SENTENCES • Sailor Bear • He thought and he thought. Then he looked at his suit and he knew what to do. • “I’ll be a sailor, and sail on the sea!” decided Small Bear. • But he hadn’t a boat. • “Now what shall I do?” wondered Small Bear. • He thought and he thought. Then he looked at the sea and he knew what to do.

  23. 2: COMPOUND SENTENCES • Sailor Bear • He thought and he thought. Then he looked at his suit and he knew what to do. • “I’ll be a sailor, and sail on the sea!” decided Small Bear. • But he hadn’t a boat. • “Now what shall I do?” wondered Small Bear. • He thought and he thought. Then he looked at the sea and he knew what to do.

  24. 2: COMPOUND SENTENCES • Essential ingredients: • Simple sentences joined by the conjunctions • And • But • Or

  25. BUILD YOUR SKILLS

  26. Compound sentences in context ... • Create longer sentences • Coordinate ideas (equal weighting) • Can become repetitive • Can sound colloquial, conversational • Are great for personal writing, stories, information texts … • … But must be used with care

  27. GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS COMPLEX SENTENCES / SUBORDINATION - -

  28. 3: COMPLEX SENTENCES The sea bass, which was filmed two days ago, cruises slowly through the ocean. Starting at the bottom, it works its way upwards. Determined to find food, it scours the coral reef. He moves upwards because he senses danger.

  29. 3: COMPLEX SENTENCES This creates subordination Remember coordination …? I like fish and I enjoy chips

  30. 3: COMPLEX SENTENCES SUBORDINATION

  31. 3: COMPLEX SENTENCES The sea bass, which was filmed two days ago, cruises slowly through the ocean. SUBORDINATION

  32. 3: COMPLEX SENTENCES The sea bass, which was filmed two days ago, cruises slowly through the ocean. MAIN CLAUSE SUBORDINATION

  33. 3: COMPLEX SENTENCES The sea bass,which was filmed two days ago, cruises slowly through the ocean. SUBORDINATE CLAUSE SUBORDINATION

  34. 3: COMPLEX SENTENCES Starting at the bottom, it works its way upwards. SUBORDINATION

  35. 3: COMPLEX SENTENCES Starting at the bottom, it works its way upwards. MAIN CLAUSE

  36. 3: COMPLEX SENTENCES Starting at the bottom, it works its way upwards. SUBORDINATE CLAUSE

  37. 3: COMPLEX SENTENCES He moves upwards because he senses danger. SUBORDINATION

  38. 3: COMPLEX SENTENCES He moves upwards because he senses danger. MAIN CLAUSE

  39. 3: COMPLEX SENTENCES He moves upwards because he senses danger. SUBORDINATE CLAUSE

  40. 3: COMPLEX SENTENCES VISUAL GRAMMAR

  41. MAIN CLAUSE SUBORDINATE CLAUSE

  42. MAIN CLAUSE SUBORDINATE CLAUSE • Conjunction: • because • although • as

  43. SUBORDINATE CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSE • Conjunction: • because • although • as

  44. SUBORDINATE CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSE Make sure the subject agrees -Ing verb: • Walking • Thinking • Hoping

  45. SUBORDINATE CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSE Make sure the subject agrees -ed verb: • Frustrated • Destroyed • Undermined

  46. MAIN CLAUSE SUBORDINATE CLAUSE • relative pronoun: • Who • Which • That

  47. Handy Conjunctions Coordinating conjunctions And, but, or Subordinating conjunctions after, although, as, as if, as long as, as though, because, before, if , in case, once, since, than, that, though, until, unless, when, whenever, where, wherever, whereas, while

  48. BUILD YOUR SKILLS

  49. COMPLEX SENTENCES ... Have a main clause and a subordinate clause linked by ... Conjunction - as, until, after … -ing verb -ed verb Relative pronoun - who, which, that ..

  50. GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS Modification - 2 -