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Chapter 16. The Arts. Chapter Questions. Why is art universal but the role of artist found only in modern society? How do societies differ in their artistic emphases and styles. What are some universal functions of the arts?
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Chapter 16 The Arts
Chapter Questions • Why is art universal but the role of artist found only in modern society? • How do societies differ in their artistic emphases and styles. • What are some universal functions of the arts? • What are some of the different ways in which the arts express cultural identities? • How have the global economy and the global culture affected the arts of indigenous peoples?
Art • Universal means of expressing the identity of a culture. • Evidence of art appears early in the human fossil record. • There is no known culture without art.
Understanding Art in Culture • In most societies, art is inseparable from other activities. • Separation of art from social behavior is characteristic of modern society. • In non-industrial societies, art is embedded in all aspects of culture.
Five Types of Arts • Graphic and plastic arts • Music • Dance • Folklore • Sports and games
Functions of Art • Communication with and control over nature and the supernatural. • Display of cultural themes. • Cultural and social integration. • Express cultural identity and history.
Communication With Natural World • Cave paintings represent the restoration to nature of the animals that are killed. • Ritual art, dedicated to the spirits who protect life, lessens danger. • Dance movements imitating animals are believed to exert control over animals.
Symbolic Communication Symbolic elements in art are culturally specific: • In Western culture, the phrase “once upon a time” is a signal for a fairy tale. • Totem poles reflect the social hierarchy in their societies.
Foster Harmony in Society • The arts make dominant cultural themes visible, tangible, and more real. • The arts give voice to disunity and conflict within a society.
Express Cultural Identity and History • In many cultures, the most important artistic efforts represent ancestors. • In Imperial China, the arts were central in legitimizing the emperor.
Deep Play: Balinese Cockfight • Symbolic contest between male egos. • Expresses Balinese social hierarchy.