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Chapter 16

Chapter 16. Rescue Procedures. Introduction. Rescue has many meanings. Firefighters must be aware of existing dangers and minimize the risks. Consistent training is required to keep up to date. Chapter only scratches the surface of rescue situations.

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Chapter 16

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  1. Chapter 16 Rescue Procedures

  2. Introduction Rescue has many meanings. Firefighters must be aware of existing dangers and minimize the risks. Consistent training is required to keep up to date. Chapter only scratches the surface of rescue situations. Chapter focus is on building search and victim removal. 16.2

  3. Hazards Associatedwith Rescue Operations Hazards associated with every type of rescue operation Tunnel vision Risk/benefit analysis Establish safe havens. Minimize psychological effects.

  4. Search of Burning Structures Two-in/two-out rule Perform rescue profile before entering. Maintain awareness of position within a building. Mark doors. 16.4

  5. During an interior search, firefighters should stay in contact with a wall. If visibility is hampered, firefighters can reach into the center of the room using a tool or a “human chain” technique.

  6. (A) (B) Crawling, holding on to one another in a straight line (A) is not very productive when searching. Extending off one another toward the center of an area being searched (B) will allow more area to be covered in a quick manner.

  7. Primary Search Search for both life and fire. One of the most dangerous activities Go to fire area and search backward toward entry point. Obscured visibility Pause occasionally.

  8. Secondary Search Conducted when fire is out or under control Search through debris. Search building exterior. Different crews perform secondary search. Secondary search must be thorough.

  9. Thermal Imaging Camerasand Search Thermal imaging cameras (TICs) Infrared energy has three types of emitters: Passive emitters Active emitters Direct source emitters Drawbacks and limitations: Expensive Do not replace basic search techniques Do not see through glass or water

  10. Infrared energy is not visible but is part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Visual representation on a TIC screen.

  11. Visualizing convected heat currents on the TIC can help firefighters determine the location and extent of a fire.

  12. Large Area or Rope-AssistedTeam Search Rope anchored to stationary point outside IDLH Firefighters lead out the search line Five to seven firefighters required Team leader Control/Entry supervisor Remaining firefighters

  13. Large area occupancies generally have not only large open spaces but may also incorporate obstructions (shelf units, machines, displays, etc.) at various and random locations within the open spaces.

  14. Firefighters should work from a search rope bag that can be shouldered while controlling the rope as it is deployed from the bag.

  15. Semicircular main line search pattern.

  16. Rapid Intervention Teams Average of 12 firefighters to remove one downed firefighter Five goals: Locate firefighter. Assess condition and environment. Provide emergency air supply. Call for additional teams and resources. Attempt to remove firefighter.

  17. Victim Removal, Drags,and Carries Victims removed carefully and expeditiously Rescue situations prevent rescuer from using all the care a person would like. All carries and drags place additional stress on rescuer’s musculoskeletal system.

  18. Carries Extremity carry Conscious and unconscious patients Requires two rescuers Seat carry Conscious patients Requires two rescuers

  19. Drags Blanket drag Uses blanket or salvage cover Requires one rescuer Lift and drag Conditions must allow standing up Requires one rescuer Push and pull drag - firefighter wearing SCBA Works well for removing unconscious firefighter Requires two rescuers

  20. Webbing and pre-manufactured slings can be valuable for dragging a victim.

  21. Ladder Removals Bringing a victim down a ground ladder requires four to six team members. Headfirst or feet first Facing toward from the rescuer or facing away from the rescuer Communication between teams is important. If rescuer feels loss of control, leaning into ladder will stop the victim from moving.

  22. Backboard, Stretcher,and Litter Uses Preferable to use a backboard, stretcher, or litter Spinal immobilization Patient placed on stretcher: Extremity carry Utilizing backboard Having patient lie directly Patient must be secured as soon as possible.

  23. Scene Assessment (Size-Up) Predetermined sequence of steps or actions Carried out by the officer Scene safety considerations: Traffic Number and type of vehicles involved Potential number and extent of injuries Hazardous conditions Degree of entrapment Assessment determines need for additional resources

  24. Establishment of Work Areas All traffic in and around area should be shut down. Resulting congestion can cause secondary hazards. Fire apparatus can create traffic barrier. Traffic calming: Warn approaching traffic about upcoming hazard. Hazards zoning: Create exclusion zones around identified hazards.

  25. The first-arriving large fire apparatus should be positioned to create a traffic barrier and work zone. Cones and a spotter/flagger can help re-route traffic.

  26. Lessons Learned Much greater variety of rescue situations than covered in this chapter Rescue situations are low-frequency events. Risk/benefit analysis must be ongoing. Firefighter should not be put in hazardous situation to save something already lost. Stay aware of “big picture” to stay safe and avoid tunnel vision.

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