RISK ASSESSMENTANDMONITORING OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS CORAZON VIDAD Philippines
I. PURPOSE FOR ATTENDING THIS COURSE • Learn about risk assessment technology for environmental contaminants and their impact; • Learn the principles and techniques for monitoring of environmental chemicals detected from environmental resources and agricultural products; • Gain analytical techniques and skills in instrument and immunoassay methods.
II. What you have studied mainly on environmental science and technology in this course?
Collection of samples • Soil • River water • Soil gas • Particulate matter
Sample preparation procedures • Extraction • Filtration • Column chromatography • Evaporation • Homogenization • Solid phase extraction • Liquid-liquid extraction • Centrifugation
Analysis of Samples GC/MS–Ion trap type Residue analysis of herbicides SOIL SEDIMENT Measurement of ATP Content Luminometer Colorimetric Rapid analysis of soil Heavy Metal – Cu, Zn, Cd Atomic absorption ICP Polychlorinated biphenyls GC-ECD
WATER Tap River Pond Agricultural Treated Domestic Wastewater pH EC DO COD PO4-P Pack Test NO3 RQ Flex NO3 NO2 Cl SO4 Ion Chromatograph
WATER HPLC ELISA Kit Analysis of surfactants (LAS) Heavy metals – Cd, Pb, As Atomic Absorption Boron UV-VIS Spectrophotometer Toxic substances – Phenol Free cyanide Ammonium Pack Test Potassium Permanganate Consumption Chemical Oxygen Demand Total hardness Titration
WATER Recovery of 5 pesticides GC/MS Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals 17B Estradiol Bisphenol A Alachlor ELISA ELISA Kit ELISA Kit HPLC Volatile organic compounds GC/MS Head Space Method
NO3 concentration RQ Flex VEGETABLES • Komatuna • Spinach • Paprika • Corn • Cucumber • Okra • Beans • Paprika Recovery test Of 5 pesticides GC/MS GC/MS Multi-residue Analysis of 229 pesticides LC/MS
AIR PLASTIC TOY Detection tube (screening) GC/MS Or GC-Photo Ionization Detector VOC Soil pore air Particulate Matter Measurement of PM10 Low Volume Sampler Potassium Permanganate Consumption Chemical Oxygen Demand
III. WHICH SUBJECT MOST USEFUL TO SOLVE ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS IN YOUR COUNTRY?
Society capable of Sustainable growth Creating harmony With economy and nature DEVELOPMENT THAT MEETS THE NEEDS OF THE PRESENT W/O COMPROMISING THE ABILITY OF FUTURE GENERATION TO MEET THEIR OWN NEEDS
Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2002 National Solid Waste Management Commission National Ecology Center Provincial Solid Waste Management Board City/Municipal Waste Management Board
CALABARZON REGION Total land area 1,622,861 hectares Total number of municipalities 142 Total number of cities 10 Population (2001) 10,782,607
2001 2004 2006 Open Dumps Controlled Dump Sanitary Landfill 3 sites with Environmental Compliance Certificate 88 open dumps 27 proposed sites
IV. ACTION PLAN • Make a feed back report to Regional Director, and submit report to National Economic Development Authority • Expand and improve the monitoring of drinking water quality
ACTION PLAN Make proposal Philippine National Standards on Drinking Water Revision Committee to: Widen the scope of monitoring to include the standards for total trihalomethane, VOCs, surface active agents, and disinfectant by-products
ACTION PLAN • To identify critical areas where activities are potential sources of contamination of groundwater, through coordination with Environment Department; • Prioritization of identified sites based on the nature/type of industry, proximity to waste dumping sites, presence of groundwater source and number of households using the water facility;
ACTION PLAN • In areas identified to be high risk for contamination, to evaluate other parameters not listed in the Philippine National Standards for Drinking Water that may have endocrine effects • Preparation of drinking water quality monitoring plan by province.
ACTION PLAN • Proposed upgrading/improvement of existing government water laboratories. • Inventory of water laboratory instruments and training needs assessment of laboratory personnel; • To prepare budgetary requirements, and make necessary requests, solicit donations from private entities and non-government organizations,
ACTION PLAN • Capability building of laboratory personnel, to use ELISA technique and other methods required based on the availability of instruments. Preparation of training modules and conduct of practical trainings will be done through coordination with DOH – East Avenue Memorial Medical Center National Reference Laboratory.
ACTION PLAN • Establish networking with other agencies through Regional Inter-Agency Committee on Environmental Health in the analysis of samples requiring sensitive analytical instruments, e.g. for pesticides: Department of Agriculture - Pesticides Analytical Laboratory, metal ions, VOCs: DENR/EMB.
ACTION PLAN • To recommend to the Regional Health Director, provincial governors/ provincial health officers to subject all private water laboratories analyzing bottled water and product water from water refilling stations to undergo external proficiency tests. Proficiency test will be conducted by DOH National Reference Laboratory or any reputable private analytical laboratory recommended by DOH Central Office.
ACTION PLAN • To purchase basic instruments and glassware, reagents and supplies necessary to implement the agreed monitoring plans • In the absence of highly sensitive analytical instruments such as GC/MS, HPLC, to make use of simplified water inspection products for screening tests on Al, As, B, Ca, chloride, residual chlorine, free cyanide, Cr6+, Cu, F, Fe, formaldehyde, , Mg, Mn, NO3, NO2, pH, phenol, total hardness, Zn,
ACTION PLAN • To recommend the use of enzyme linked immunoassay kits in evaluating compounds which have endocrine effect such as estrogen, compounds which are used as raw materials for surfactants (bisphenol A, LAS), organochlorine compounds with thermal properties (PCBs) and other agricultural chemicals with known toxicities (Alachlor, Atrazine).