Risk Assessment and Monitoring for Environmental Chemicals Pramod Kumar Gupta Environmental Engineer Central Pollution Control Board Delhi INDIA J.I.C.A. Kobe, Japan
Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals Endocrine disrupting chemicals consist of synthetic and naturally occurring chemicals that affect the balance of normal hormonal functions in animals. Depending on their activity they may be characterized as estrogen modulators or androgen modulators. They may mimic the sex hormones estrogen or androgen or they may block the activities of estrogen or androgen. E.g. Benzo (A) pyrene, Bisphenol - A, Cadmium, DDT, Lead, PCBs, 2,3,7,8 - TCDD
Effects on wild animals by EDC • Imposex : Small shell fish, oyster, snail induced by TBT bioaccumulation. • Increased population of bi – sex fish in under – stream of sewage plant or pulp factory : alkyl phenol ethoxylates, difurans, PCBs. • Feminization of male seagull or masculization of female seagull – organo chlorine pesticides, PCBs. • Decreased population of western gull in California – organo chlorine pesticides, PCBs.
Suspected effects in human by EDC • Increased endometritis in woman – Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons. • Increased mammary tumors in women – organic chlorine pesticides, PAH. • Decreased number and concentration of sperm in men. • Increased testicular tumors in men. • Increased prostate tumors in men. • Adverse effects on development of nervous system in children.
Risk of a synthetic pesticide • Workers or farmers who usually handle large amount of pesticide as profession. • High risk of direct exposure. • Ordinary people who are exposed to pesticides indirectly through foods at extremely lower levels. • Exposed to whole life.
Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) ADI = Non – observed effect level / Factor of Safety Factor of Safety = Species difference x Individual difference = 10 x 10 = 100 When Human Risk cannot be wiped out – Committee reject to set an ADI
ADI of PCB and Pesticides Chemical ADI (mg/kg body weight/day) PCB 0.005 -BHC 0.008 Malathion 0.02 Fenitrothion 0.005 Diazinon 0.002
Legend for Standards of Pesticide Regulation Tolerance for Pesticide Residue : Upper most residue level of a pesticide in food to ensure the ADI. Standard for withholding registration : Uppermost residue level of a pesticide in food and fresh water to ensure the tolerance for pesticide residue. Direction for safe use of agricultural chemicals : Concentration of the chemical, frequency and adequate time for application Guidance for safe use of agricultural chemicals in field workers : Use of mask, hand gloves, eye glasses, long sleeve shirts
The Basic Principle of Waste Disposal • Effort to minimize the amount of waste • Segregated disposal • Promotion of resource recovery and recycling • Reduction of volume, creation of harmless waste • Final treatment of residue Final Disposal Site • Strictly controlled land fill site : Hazardous material • Least controlled land fill site : Rubber, Plastic, glass waste • Controlled land fill site : Live stock excreta, animal and plant residue, sludge.
Purpose for Incineration of Waste • Volume Reduction : • Combustible Compounds CO2 Exhaust • Water Steam • Inert Material Ash Land fill • Deodorization : • Temperature > 700° C – Thermal decomposition of offensive odor components. • Detoxification : • High temperature – Decomposition of PCBs, infectious organism.
Advantages of Incineration • No land requirement • Power generation • Cooling and Heating • Disadvantages of Incineration • Secondary Pollution – • Dust Exhaust Gas treatment • HCl Waster water treatment • SO2 Detoxification of ash • NOX • Dioxins • Heavy Metals
Dioxin Reduction at source • Furnace Temperature > 850° C • Retention Time > 2 Secs • Combustion Gas Turbulence CO < 30 ppm Avoid CO peak > 100 ppm
Sources of PCB • Transformer • Carbon free paper • Sealant PCB • Fluorescent 90% of PCB still remaining in environment
Special Control Law for Dioxins, 2000 • Definition • Poly Chlorinated dibenzo furan (PCDF) • Poly Chlorinated dibenzo- para-dioxin (PCDD) • Coplanar poly chlorinated biphenyl • Tolerable Daily Intake – 4 pg-TEQ/kg/day • Environmental Quality Standards – • Water Quality – 1 pg-TEQ/l (Annual avg.) • Soil – 1000 pg-TEQ/g, max • Emission Standards – 0.1 ng-TEQ/Nm3
Basic Environment Law, 1993 • Environmental Quality Standards: • Air Pollution • Water Pollution • Noise Pollution • Soil Pollution • Air Pollution • Air Pollution control law • Road Transport and Motor Vehicle law • Electric utilized industry law • Gas utility industry law
Water Pollution • Water Pollution control law • Sewerage law • Law concerning special measures for the conservation of lake water quality • Soil Pollution • Agricultural land soil pollution prevention law • Noise Pollution • Noise regulation law • Road transport and motor vehicle law
Production • Law concerning examination and regulation of manufacture and handling of chemical substances • Agriculture chemicals regulation law • Waste • Waste disposal (Management) Law • Containers and packaging recycling law • Home appliances recycling law • Construction Materials recycling law • Food recycling law • Law on recycling of end – of – life vehicles • Enactment of the special measures to process PCB
Impact of Agro – Eco system on Atmospheric and Aquatic Environment • Excess Nitrogen (Fertilizer) causes high Nitrate in Ground water • Emits N2O, NO & NH3 • Emits CH4 & CO2 – Global warming
Continuous Ambient Air quality Monitoring Station • SPM • SO2 • NOX • O3 (Alarm if > 120 ppb) • Radiation
Continuous Water Quality Monitoring Station • DO • pH • EC • COD • Temperature • Turbidity • Total Phosphorous • Total Nitrogen
Visit of Minatojima Clean Center • Domestic waste incinerator • Central control room • Bulky waste crusher • ESP • Desulphurisation equipment • Environmental Standards • SPM : 30 mg/Nm3 • NOX : 150 ppm or below • HCl : 4.8 mg/Nm3 • Dioxin : 0.1 ng – TEQ / Nm3
Sewage Treatment Plant, Kobe Port Island • Screen Channel • Grit Channel • Equalization tank • First Sedimentation Tank • Bioreactors • Final Sedimentation Tank • Chlorination Tank • Sand Filtration • Sludge dewatered Incineration • Environmental Standards – Compliance (including dioxin : 10 pg/l, PCB : 0.003 mg/l)
Minamata Disease • Chisso Co. : Production Acetaldehyde • Methyl Mercury compound discharged in Minamata Bay • Fish contaminated with Methyl Mercury • Consumption of Contaminated fish by humans • Development of Minamata Disease • In 1968 production of Acetaldehyde closed • Dredging of contaminated bottom sediment and reclaimed area
Visit of Kobe offshore Reclamation Disposal Site • Innovative project : No land requirement • Waste Material transported by marine transportation • Iron sheet encloses the site • Effluent treatment plant • Creating a new land.
Akoh Cement Plant Utilization of Waste material • Tyre waste as fuel • Blast furnace slag • Fly ash APCE : Bag Filter / ESP Matsushita Eco Technology Center Co. Ltd. • Law for recycling of specified Home Appliances • Recycling: • TVs • AC • Washing Machines • Refrigerators
Sanyo Electric Company • Ni – Cd Storage Battery • Cd in effluent • Waste water treatment plant • Contamination of rice due to effluent containing Cd • Effect on Human – ouch – ouch Disease • Effluent standard for Cd – 0.1 mg/l • Water quality standard for Cd – 0.01 mg/l • MRL of Cd in Rice – 1 mg/kg • Ambient Air quality standard – 1 mg/Nm3
Principle & Operation of Analytical instruments • pH Meter • EC Meter • Turbidity Meter • DO Meter • MLSS Meter • Stack Monitor for NOx, SO2, CO, CO2 & O2 • Ambient Air quality monitor for CO, SO2, NOX, HC, O3 • Automobile exhaust emission monitor for CO, CO2, HC • Automobile exhaust testing at Manufacturing stage
Gas Chromatograph • GC – MS • High Performance liquid chromatograph • LC – MS • Spectrophotometer • Atomic Absorption spectrophotometer
Precise Measurement of Environmental Micro-pollutants by Chromatograph • Chromatography • Separation from co-existing substances • Mass spectrometry • Accurate detection and identification • GC/MS • Volatile, non polar and thermal stable compound • Mobile phase : gas • LC/MS • Non - Volatile, polar and thermal unstable compound • Mobile phase : liquid
Hyogo Prefectural Technology Center for Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries • Analysis of biomass in soil treated with pesticide • Rapid analysis of soil for pH ( by pH meter), electrical conductivity (by EC meter), NH4, NO3, NO2,P2O5,K2O,CaO, MgO, Fe++, Zn, Cl, SO4 (by kit) • Analysis of Cu and Zn in soil by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer • Analysis of Cu, Zn and Cd in soil by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrophotometer • Analysis of NO3 in spinach and komatsuna (vegetable) • Water quality examination for pH, EC, DO, COD (by Pack Test Kit)
Analysis of phosphorous ion in various water samples by Spectrophotometer. • Analysis of NO3-N in various water samples by Ion Chromatograph. • Analysis of organo chlorine insecticides in agricultural soil by GC/ECD • Sampling and analysis of soil from onion field for fenitorothion insecticide residue after 3,5,7 & 14 days of its application by GC/ECD
Hyogo Prefectural Institute of Public Health and Env. Sciences • Analysis of PCB in sea sediment sample of zaimoku port area by GC/MS • Rapid analysis of PCB in Amagasaki river sediment sample by ELISA Kit method • Analysis of pesticides in spiked water sample by solid phase extraction and liquid liquid extraction method. • Analysis of VOC (formaldehyde and acetaldehyde) in ambient air. • Monitoring of site polluted with VOC and its analysis
Rapid analysis of cyanide, phenol and ammonia in water sample by Pack Test Kit • Determination of hardness in mineral water (bottled) • Analysis of lead and cadmium in water sample by Flame Type Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer and Inductively Coupled Plasma with ultrasonic aerosol generator • Analysis of mercury in water samples • Monitoring and analysis of ambient PM10 by low volume sampler and high volume sampler
Kobe Quarantine Station • Simultaneous analysis method is used to test organo phosphorus, pyrethroid and organo compounds pesticides • Analysis of organo phosphorus pesticide residue in orange (imported from U.S.A.) and organo phosphorus pesticide residue in corn by GC – FPD • Recovery of 7 pesticides test in spiked paprika • GC-MS for qualitative analysis • Screening method followed by official method • Good laboratory practices • Pesticide level < MRL value.
Enzyme linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Uses two types of proteins: • Antibody : High structure – recognition Immune system of Vertebrate Antigen – Antibody reaction • Enzyme : High sensitivity Enzyme reaction Detect Atomole (10-15 M) level
Kobe University • Analysis of river water sample spiked with simetryn by ELISA method and HPLC method. • Analysis of water sample spiked with Bisphenol – A by ELISA kit (Microplate) • Analysis of water sample spiked with Bisphenol – A by ELISA kit (Tube)
Functions of my Organization • To formulate the environmental quality standards and emission / effluent standards; • Advise the Central Govt. on all pollution related matter; • Plan a nation-wide programme for the prevention, control or abatement of water and air pollution; • Co-ordination with SPCBs; • Provide technical assistance and guidance to SPCBs Carry out and sponsor investigation and research relating to pollution;
Organize training of persons; • Organize through mass media, a comprehensive mass awareness programme on prevention, control or abatement of water and air pollution; • Collect, compile and publish technical and statistical data relating to pollution; • Prepare manuals, codes and guidelines relating to treatment and disposal of sewage and trade effluents as well as for stack gas cleaning devices, stacks and ducts; • Disseminate information in respect of matters relating to water and air pollution and their prevention and control;
Action Plan • To initiate studies on Risk Assessment of Environmental Chemicals such as dioxins, PCB, pesticide • To introduce the ELISA method for monitoring of endocrine disruptors such as PCB, dioxin, bisphenol A. This method is cheaper in comparison to instrumental analysis & getting popularize. • To initiate effective monitoring of PCB & heavy metal in sea sediment of ship dismantling site • Environmental Management Plan to control pollution at ship dismantling site • To disseminate / share the knowledge gained during training • To make efforts to increase the utilization of waste material such as flyash, blast furnace slag, phosphogypsum and incinerable hazardous waste in cement manufacturing.
To develop environmental standards of SO2, NOX and dioxins for cement industry through National Task Force. • To promote the concept of recycling and reuse of waste material • To pursue the entrepreneurs to install continuous emission monitoring system in industries • To develop emission standards of dioxins for Bio medical waste incinerator • Custom duty rebate on import of pollution monitoring instruments such as GC-MS, ELISA kit etc. • To introduce soil pollution law. • Pesticide monitoring in river water. • To review the limit of PCB in sludge/waste to cover it under Hazardous Waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 1989.
To make awareness regarding impact of agricultural field on global warming • To motivate industries to take voluntary pollution control measures • Enforcement of environmental standards including monitoring of environmental contaminants in & around cement and asbestos based industries. • Formulation / development of policy & guidelines related to industrial pollution control. • Public involvement for keeping checks of the industrial discharge i.e. surveillance activities. • Hazardous and Solid Waste Management.
Restoration and preservation of quality of rivers / lakes due to discharge of untreated / partially treated municipal waste water. • Installation and commissioning of the pollution control systems especially by a large number of small scale industries. • Ensuring proper operation and maintenance of the effluent treatment plants by the industries. • Flyash management. • Adoption of cleaner technologies.