MID-COURSE REPORT Risk Assessment and Monitoring for Environmental Chemicals ( JICA HIC, 1st June 2007) MUCHLIS (INDONESIA)
1. What I Want to Achieve • To get comprehensive understanding of risk assessment and management principles of industrial, agrochemicals and environmental chemicals. • To improve my technological skill on monitoring of environmental chemicals, especially POPs, pesticide and heavy metals residue.
2.1 Evaluation of My Achievement Better Understanding on Risk Assessment Principles of Chemicals - Determination of whether adverse effects are likely to occur - • Hazard identification (toxicity to human, toxicity to environmental organisms) • Dose-response assessment (LC50, LD50, NOAEL) • Exposure assessment • Environmental fate (biodegradation, bioaccumulation, physical transport to various media ;soil, air, water, sediment) • Route of entry (ingestion, inhalation, skin contact) • Risk characterization (PNEC/PEC ratio , EDI/ADI ratio) Based on scientific observation • physical chemical properties (partition coefficient, solubility, vapor pressure, etc) • mammalian toxicology and metabolism (acute, sub-acute, chronic toxicity, carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, mutagenicity, etc) • environmental chemistry (BOD, hydrolysis, photo-degradation, etc) • ecotoxicology (fish acute toxicity, algal growth, daphnia magna acute toxicity, etc )
2.2 Evaluation of My Achievement Better Understanding on Risk Management Principles of Chemicals - The process by which policy actions are chosen to control the hazard effect identified in the risk assessment stage - • Risk = Hazard x Exposure • Regularly monitoring of hazardous chemicals are conducted • Maximum residue limit (MRL) are set up from Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) as standard evaluation for food protection. • Environmental quality standard (EQS) are set up as desirable standard evaluation to sustain healthy life both human and living environment. • Emission control of chemical pollutants are conducted from its source by law and engineering approaches. • Based on Risk and Benefit assessment, Chemical Substance Control Law can play important role to protect human and environment by regulate manufacture, import and use of chemical substance that may be hazardous to human health and/or impair the life and growth of flora and fauna. Special attention for chemicals that are persistent, highly bioaccumulative, have long-term toxicity for humans or top predators through continuous intake and have ecotoxicity,
2.3 Evaluation of My Achievement Better Understanding on Monitoring Techniques of Chemical Residue in Environment • Sampling method • Preparation step on analytical method (homogenization, extraction, clean-up, dehydration) • Principles, basic operation, data processing of analytical instruments (Spectrophotometer, GC, GC-MS, HPLC, LC-MS, AAS, ICP) • GLP
3. Interesting / Beneficial Subjects • The Basics of Risk Assessment and Monitoring of Environmental Chemicals, Hideo OHKAWA • Environmental Law and Criteria in Japan, Akira HASEGAWA • Mechanism of Dioxin Toxicity, Hitoshi ASHIDA • Japan’s Efforts to Reduce the Environmental Emissions, Akira HASEGAWA • Ecological Risk Assessment of Environmental Contaminants, Masaru NOKATA • Air Pollutants Control /Management, Kazuo KATAO • Safety Evaluation of Chemicals, Shigeki MIYACHI • Green Chemistry, Mitsuru SASASKI • Waste Management System, Toshitada OKAZAKI and Mr. ADACHI • Wastewater Treatment Technologies, Takeshi MIYAMOTO, Akihiro TOJI • Chemical substances and Work Environment, Toshio KAWAI • Database search in Kobe University • Project Cycle Management Method • Instrumentation at Shimadzu, Hitachi and Horiba company • Laboratory practice of pesticide residue and heavy metals analysis in soil sample • etc
4. Further Subject by Request Laboratory practice for Dioxin Monitoring (sampling and analysis method)
5. Theme of My Action Plan Promotion of Risk Management and Improvement of Monitoring Ability to Reduce Risk of Dioxins Pollution in Indonesia