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Name of Training Course. Risk Assessment and Monitoring for Environmental Chemicals (J-02-03387). PowerPoint Presentation
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Name of Training Course. Risk Assessment and Monitoring for Environmental Chemicals (J-02-03387).

Name of Training Course. Risk Assessment and Monitoring for Environmental Chemicals (J-02-03387).

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Name of Training Course. Risk Assessment and Monitoring for Environmental Chemicals (J-02-03387).

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  1. JAPAN ODA-OFFICIAL DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE JAPAN INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AGENCY FINAL REPORT Name of Training Course. Risk Assessment and Monitoring for Environmental Chemicals (J-02-03387). Training Time. From February 17, 2003 To August 24, 2003. Name of Participant. Zandra Lorena Jirón Aguilar (M.Sc.) Name of Organization. National Autonomous University of Nicaragua – León (UNAN-León). Faculty of Sciences. Chemistry Department. August 22nd , 2003. HIC-Kobe

  2. JAPAN ODA-OFFICIAL DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE JAPAN INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AGENCY ESSENTIAL FACTS • Target Group: • International level technical officers and researchers in the field of Environmental Science and Technology. • Leading technical officers and researchers in charge of risk assessment and monitoring environmental chemicals. • Course Objectives: • To learn about risk assessment technology for environmental contaminants and their impacts • on human and the environment. • 1. To learn about the principles and techniques used for monitoring environmental chemicals detected • from environmental resources and agricultural products. • 3. To gain analytical techniques and skills in instrument, immunoassay and bioassay methods. • Training Institutions: • Horiba, Ltd. Private Sector • Hitachi High Technologies Corporation. Private Sector • Shimadzu Corporation. Private Sector • Hyogo Technology Center for Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. Government • Kobe Quarantine Station, Ministry of Health and Welfare. Government • Hyogo Prefectural Institute of Public Health and Environmental Sciences. Government • Kobe University. Research Center for Environmental Genomics. National Course Leader: Dr. OHKAWA Hideo. Professor. Research Center for Environmental Genomics. Kobe University. Course Coordinator: Ms. YOKOTANI Kimie. Senior Coordinator. JICE-JICA. Kobe.

  3. JAPAN INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AGENCY JAPAN-ODA Since 1974 Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) has implemented Japan’s technical cooperation under the ODA (Official Development Assistance) programmes. The training programme for overseas participants is one of JICA’s fundamental technical cooperation activities for developing countries. The objectives of the JICA training programme are: 1. To contribute to the development of human resources who will promote the advancement of developing countries, and 2. To contribute to the promotion of mutual understanding and friendship. The aim of this course is designed that leading technical officers and researchers can gain knowledge and technologies for risk assessment and monitoring environmental chemicals throughLectures (L), Practices (P) and Observations (O). Since 1996 Japan Government has a development action plan in Nicaragua in the areas of Agriculture, Health and Education. And since 1999 JICA started in UNAN-Leon. For me, as a member of the National Autonomous University of Nicaragua–Leon (UNAN-Leon) and as a Docent of the Chemistry Department, there was an opportunity to apply for a JICA-Course that could cover my Faculty expectations to learn what a developed country as Japan is doing to be protected against the risk of toxicity from environmental contaminants. To learn what is the technical state of art for chemical analysis and what are the regulations that Japan is applying to resolve the situation.

  4. CURRICULUM FOR THE TRAINING PROGRAMME • General Orientation. • Lectures: • Japanese History and Culture. • Japanese People and Society. • Japanese Economy. • Japanese Education. • Japanese Politics and Administration System. • Characteristics of the Japanese Language. • Intensive Japanese Lessons (8 Lessons). • Japanese Evening Course (10 Lessons). • Lectures: 25 Sessions • Observations: 20 Centers • Practices: 7 Institutions OSAKA (OSIC-JICA) 1 Week KOBE (HIC-JICA) 6 months

  5. LECTURES • 1. Objective: To learn and master knowledge of administration and laws for environmental chemical control. • Subject: • Regulation of environmental chemicals in Japan / Agricultural chemicals regulation law / • Food sanitation law (Tolerance for pesticide residue) / Current status of environmental endocrine disruptors and heavy metals / Risk assessment of environmental chemicals. Regulation of industrial and domestic wastes. • 2. Objective: To learn knowledge of environmental chemicals. • Subject: • Current status of environmental chemicals in Japan / Environmental endocrine disruptors and heavy metals. Industrial and domestic wastes / Pesticide residues. CO2 and acid rain / Metabolic fate in the environment. Biological concentration / Biological effects / Modes of toxicological action / Waste treatment technology. • Objective: To learn knowledge and analysis methods of environmental chemicals including pesticide residues in crops and environment. • Subject: • Theory of chemical analysis / Analysis method. Chemical analysis in agricultural products and environmental simples including soil, water and air / Identification of chemicals and degradation products / Data process and evaluation. • Objective: To learn new knowledge in the field of biotechnology. • Subject: • Biotechnology / Immunoassays / Bioassays.

  6. OBSERVATIONS 1 Exploring our future with technology and wisdom For people, society and the earth – Sumitomo Chemical Company, Limited. Environmental Health. Osaka Established in 1913, Sumitomo Chemical is one of Japan's leading chemical manufacturers, offering a diverse range of products, including basic chemicals,petrochemicals, fine chemicals, agricultural chemicals, and pharmaceuticals.We maintain a worldwide network of subsidiaries, affiliates, and other offices, and our products are sold in more than 100 countries. Sumitomo Chemical's strong basic and applied research programs have yielded numerous products that have gained top market shares in domestic and global markets. 2 3 • Kobe Municipal Minatojima • Clean Center • (Waste Treatment Facility) • Environmental Bureau. • Kobe Municipal Government. • Management of wastes. • Incineration of domestic wastes. • Ashes (wastes) to soil. Kobe Municipal Port Island Sewage Treatment Plant. Kobe City. Public Construction Project Bureau. Water Quality: Activaited Sludge Method with Chemical addition + Sand filtration (Anaerobic-Anoxid-Oxid Method) 4 Kobe Steel, Ltd.Kakogawa Work. Is one of Japan's leading steelmakers, as well as the top supplier of aluminum and copper products. Other businesses include welding consumables, urban infrastructure and plant engineering services, and industrial machinery. The Company also has high-tech businesses in electronics and information systems. Kobe Steel has numerous consolidated and equity-valued companies in Japan, the Americas, Asia and Europe. KOBELCO is the corporate mark used by Kobe Steel on a variety of products and in the names of a number of group companies. Behind the KOBELCO mark is Kobe Steel's commitment to excellence and quality.

  7. OBSERVATIONS 7 Oga Environment Center Kobe City Water Treatment Facility (Leachate Treatment) 5 Fisheries Technology Institute, Hyogo Pref. Technology Center for Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. Akashi Kobe Offshore Reclamation Disposal Site Kobe City 8 6 Osaka Bay Phoenix Project. To use part of the sea or to convert it as part of the Japan land to cover their own priorities in space. • Technical Research Center • Water • Soil and Environmental Recovery • Air • Environment Analysis • Energy and Global Warming Prevention Means • Resources Saving and Recycle • Industry and Production • Wastes 9 Nishinomiya West Municipal Refuse Disposal Centre Nishinomiya, Incineration facility to treat municipal solid wastes and waste sorting. Organization, searching for the energy saving. To separate the waste in combustibles and not combustibles. Recycling seems to be an important alternative in Japan although it means high regulations to achieve.

  8. OBSERVATIONS 11 Sumitomo Cement Co., LTD. Sumimoto Cement as many other companies in Japan are always concer about energy saving, risk assessment, quality control. It was interesting to go there. 10 Environment Bureau, Hyogo Prefectural Government Air Pollution Monitoring System of Hyogo Pref. (SO2, NOx, Ox, SPM, CO) Central Monitoring Station. 13 Daiei Inter Nature System Daiei Kankyo Co., Ltd. Hyogo Matsushita Eco-Technology Center Co., Ltd. 12 Matsushita. Recycling of End-of Life Home Appliances. Private Sector. Never before I visited such a place to dissemble refrigerators, TVs, washing machines, air conditions. It was incredibly to go there. I did know that there is a Japan Law backing up such activities. Probably such an activity can not be applied in my country because most of these home electrical devices are used until be over. Daiei, Industrial Waste Integrated Treatment and Recycling System. Private Sector. That was my first experience to visit such facilities in where can be possible to dissemble things and reuse important and expensive materials. 14 Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd. Soft Energy Company Hyogo

  9. 15 OBSERVATIONS Awaji Agricultural Technology Institute. Hyogo 16 Mercury contamination 17 The Institute of Environmental Toxicology (Mitsukaido Labs.) Ibaraki

  10. OBSERVATIONS 18 Tsukuba, Ibaraki Research Center for Chemical Risk Management conducts innovative research, works with government and industry to promote environmental safety through science-based and sustainable solutions, and disseminates research findings and recommendations about risk assessment and risk management to the general public and policymakers. 19 Conserve the environment by listening to wind, observing soil and thinking of our future. Tsukuba, Ibaraki. The new NIAES concentrates on the following basic research targets to fulfill its research missions on a global scale. 1) Strategies to ensure stable food supplies under global environmental change.2) Assuring the safety of food and environment utilizing the natural circulation function of agriculture.3) Succession of the agro-environmental resources to future 20 Tsukuba, Ibaraki.

  11. 1 Content: Lab pH/water quality analyzer / Multi-water quality monitoring system. pH meter / DO meter. Waste water treatment system (Conductivity / Turbidity / Dissolved Oxygen (DO) / Oxidation and Reduction Potential (ORP) / Ion measurements). Air pollution monitor / Stack gas analyzer / Session (Demonstration/Operating Practice). Car exhausted gas analyzer. Horiba Ltd. Kyoto (1 week) Purpose : To acquire knowledge of the principles of monitoring and analytical instruments for environmental samples and techniques for the operation. LABORATORY PRACTICES 2 Hitachi High-Technologies Corporation Osaka (1 week) Purpose :To acquire knowledge of the principles of monitoring analytical instruments for environmental samples and to acquire techniques for the operation. Content: Spectrophotometer Atomic Absorption Liquid Chromatography LC/MS Centrifuge

  12. 3 Shimadzu Scientist Koichi Tanaka awarded the 2002 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Shimadzu Corporation Kyoto (1 week) Content: Fule Gas Analyzer. Visit to Shimadzu Foundation. Memorial Hall. Gas Chromatography. Analytical Application Center. Gas Chromatography. Mass Spectrometer. High Performance Liquid Chromatographer (HPLC) Purpose:To acquire knowledge of the principles of monitoring analytical instruments and to acquire techniques for the operation. LABORATORY PRACTICES Kasai, Hyogo (3 weeks) 4 Hyogo Prefectural Technology Center for Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. (Environmental Conservation Group) Purpose:To learn techniques on chemical analysis applied on water samples such as COD, NO3-N, PO4-P, pH, EC, DO, Transparency; applied on soil samples such as Heavy metals Cu, Zn, Cd by (ICP-AES), Rapid Analysis including pH, EC, NH4+, NO3-, P2O5, CaO, MgO, Fe2+, Zn2+, Cl-, SO42-, Analysis of Biomass by ATP Luminometer Method, Residue Analysis of Pesticides (GC), GC/MS; applied on vegetable samples such as Analysis of NO3 with RQ Flex. Content: Analysis of Heavy Metals in Soil / Rapid Analysis of Environmental Chemicals in Soil / Rapid Analysis of Nitrate in Vegetables with RQ Flex /Analysis of Biomass in Soil Treated with Agricultural Chemicals / Water Quality Measurement / Analysis of NO3-N with Ion Chromatography / Water Quality Measurement. Phosphorus Ions by Spectrophotometry Analysis / COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) / Principle of KMnO4 Method / Pesticides Residue Analysis: (Organochlorine or Organophosphorus pesticides)

  13. 5 • Kobe Quarantine Station • Center for Inspection of Imported Food & Infectious Diseases • (Physico-Chemical Unit) • Kobe (1 week) • Purpose: To learn techniques on Simultaneous Analysis of Pesticide Residue in • Agricultural Products: • Simultaneous Analysis of Pesticide Residue in Fruits and Vegetables. • Organophosphorus in orange sample using paprika as (+) and (-) control. • (GC/MS – multi residue analysis for screening). • Simultaneous Analysis of Pesticide Residue in Cereals, Beans and Seeds. • Organophosphorus in corn sample using lime beans as (+) and (-) control. • (GC/MS – multi residue analysis for screening). LABORATORY PRACTICES Content: “Analysis of Pesticides in Fruits and Vegetables”. (Simultaneous Analysis for Screening). “Analysis of Pesticides in Cereals, Beans and Seeds”. (Simultaneous Analysis for Screening).

  14. 6 Hyogo Prefectural Institute of Public Health and Environmental Sciences (HPIPHES) Science-Suma Lab. Suma-ku, Kobe. Science-Hyogo Lab. Hyogo-ku, Kobe. (5 weeks) Purpose:To learn techniques on measurement of environmental pollutants. LABORATORY PRACTICES Content: 1. PCB ELISA kit Protocol. PCB Extraction kit Protocol /2. Analysis of PCB in Sediment Samples / 3. Analysis of Pesticides in the Environment / 4. Analysis of VOCs in Ambient Air / 5. The Analysis Method of Volatile Organic Compounds / 6. Laboratory Practice: Analysis of Heavy Metal in Industrial Wastes.Fluorescence X-Ray Analysis (X-Ray Spectrometer RIX 2000. Rigaku Industrial Corporation Japan) / 7. Measurement of phenols, free cyanide and ammonium in water by using the simple and fast inspection kit / 8. Multi-Component Simultaneous Analysis Method of Pesticides in Domestic and Imported Foods Collected in Hyogo Prefecture, Japan / 9. Total Hardness of Natural Water / 10. Potassium Permanganate Consumed of Natural Water / 11. Analysis of Cd and Pb by A.A.A. and ICP-AES / 12. Analysis of Arsenic (As) with A.A.S. 13. Analysis of Heavy Metal in Water Sample-Mercury / 14. Measuring the Mass Concentration of Ambient Particulate Matter (PM10). Fine and Coarse Particles.

  15. 7 Research Center for Environmental Genomics (2 weeks) Purpose:To learn basics on enzyme immunoassay and understand the techniques of immunoassays for environmental pollutants. • Immunoassay in Environmental Chemicals • Basic Experiment of Immunoassays. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). • Antibody and Antigen. / Indirect Competitive ic-ELISA./ Direct Competitive dc-ELISA (I). Direct Competitive ELISA (II). • Factor of Accuracy of EIA / Pipetting Technique. Direct Mode. Pipetting Technique. Indirect Mode. • Enzyme Immuno Assay for Estrone and 17-Estradiol. • Determination of dilution factor for the enzyme-labeled antibody / Developing Direct Competitive ELISA (II). • Cross Reactivity of anti-estrogen antibodies / Study of Enzyme Reaction (incubation time). • Immunoassays for Pesticide Analysis. • Standard Curve for simetryn in ELISA. Analysis of unknown sample concentrations. • Immunoassays for Pesticide Analysis (continuation). • HPLC for Simetryn (herbicide). Standard Curve. • Pretreatment of the sample using Affinity Column • (Solid Phase Extraction SPE C18 cartridge). • Sampling of a river water. Solid Phase Extraction of Simetryn./ HPLC Analysis of Simetryn. LABORATORY PRACTICES Quantitative Analysis with ELISA KIT for Environmental Pollutants Immunoassays for Environmental Endocrine Disruptors (EDs). • Quantitative Analysis with ELISA KIT for Environmental Pollutants • Immunoassays for Environmental Endocrine Disruptors (EDs). • Ecologiena ELISA KIT for bisphenol A (BPA) with tubes. • Ecologiena Supersensitive ELISA KIT for bisphenol A (BPA) with microplates. • Calculation with Computer-aided Method. • Hardward: Machintosh PC. Software: Delta Soft 3. Research and development, manufacturing and purchasing of activated carbon, wood preservatives, industrial preservatives, ELISA test kits, phosphates adsorbent, and water treatment carrier

  16. Subjects most useful to solve environmental problems in my country. • Evaluation of environmental chemicals impact.Although in Nicaragua we don’t produce chemicals, the usage of imported ones is very high and we have some environmental incidents related, for instance, people affected because they work or live nearby banana plantations. The course was appropriate to learn about evaluation and countermeasures. • Remediation of polluted rivers, lakes and soils and final disposal of solid wastes. • We are concern about the problem of local people from big cities dumping solid waste to rivers. We have to learn form Japan about using controlled incineration systems, educating people for appropriate recollection and reduction of domestic garbage, and monitoring effluents of industry to follow existing standards. Very important the sewage treatment, specially in metropolis cities, where it is discharged directly to the rivers using only primary treatment, decreasing substantially the natural cleaning capacity of the rivers, because of the high BOD of the sewage. • Environmental contaminant studies. Collection of samples of air, precipitation, standing and flowing water, soil, sediments, and biota, followed by a subsequent instrument analysis of these samples in chemistry laboratories in order to determine the concentration levels of the undesirable substances in the environment. • Regulations on environmental contaminants. They are different from one to another because of their risk assessment basis of each background. Ecological risk assessment of environmental contaminations needs to be comprehensive. Ecotoxicological studies are performed to determine the toxicity on non-target organism groups. To predict the likely exposure concentration, the data on the environmental fate, e.g. degradation in water, soil and sediment, photolysis, hydrolysis, adsorption, residues in soil and residue in crop are also needed. The ecological risk assessment is performed on the basis of the toxicity exposure ratio, monitoring studies may be required to determine whether the predicted concentrations are practical under conditions of normal use. • Waste treatment in Japan.The sort out process to separate combustible, not combustible, aluminum, glass; the incineration process; disposal sides; reclamation sides and finally recycling alternatives. • Target objective for Monitoring Environmental Chemicals. To reduce and/or eliminate anthropogenic emissions and discharges in order to prevent, reduce and eliminate pollution caused from hazardous substances. A very expensive test, for water, air or solid samples, includes many parameters. Any Laboratory wanting to carry out a large number of analytical measurements must have a good chemicals store room together with a complete set of expensive apparatus including HPLC, GLC-MS, Flame AA, Graphite AA, ICP-Emission, ICP-MS, FTIR, etc. Validation Process Quality Control, and Good Practice of Laboratory are in fashion now days, and it is necessary a full documentation for the standards methods applied during the analytical experiments.

  17. Action Plan • First of all, I will give a detailed report to my Head of Chemistry Department and to my Science Faculty Dean at UNAN-Leon, about the subjects covered in this course. • As a professor at the University I will give to my Head of Department, to be discussed with the rest of the colleges for its approval and implementation, a strategic plan of actions related with subjects in the environmental area that can be added to the actual Academic Plan of the Chemistry Career. There are subjects in the teaching courses of Chemistry involved with the main techniques to assess the level of contamination in water, soil and air that need to be up dated. • I will make an inventory of the environmental organizations of my country, Nicaragua, and its subject of competition. With this information either undergraduate or post-graduate students in the Chemistry Department can propose their thesis in the environmental areas, thus they can get a better understanding of environmental contamination as humankind problem and not only related to a nearby city, community, river or ecosystem. • The subjects can include the behavior and distribution of pollutants in the environment (soil, rivers, sea); chemical and mechanical stabilization of contaminated sludge including development of chemical and biological evaluation methods; recycling of raw materials from waste and waste water. Occupational Health can be added as well as a subject of study, specially the topics associated with muscle skeletal problems, pulmonary diseases, organic dust toxic syndrome, gastrointestinal problems and irritation of the eye, skin, and mucous membranes.

  18. Action Plan • I will support with all documentation given to me during this course for the development and self- • improvement of the Chemistry Department, UNAN-Leon. Chemistry Department is making great • efforts to expand three main areas, supporting teaching and service responsibility such as Laboratories of Soil, Water and Heavy Metals, for the experiment procedures we need to meet demands of analytical measurements of samples. We need to elaborate a program of preventive maintenance of actual equipment and implementation of the usage of operation records to control and assure the quality of our instrumental analysis. • I will support current research activities, in the Chemistry and/or Agro-Ecology Department that cover the area of environmental science, especially in concern with mobility and bio-availability of pollutants in agricultural soil samples, the behavior and distribution of pollutants in the environmental. The development of alternative techniques for poor quality agricultural soil, study of organic fertilizers, organic composts. • I will cooperate with the Chemistry Department Plans, in UNAN-Leon, concerning the projects with the Environmental Department of the City Council in Leon (my home town). Specially the project called “Integral Development Project in the Area of the Rio Chiquito”. This particular project is related with a river that is been contaminated by chemicals mainly for the industry of leather, agriculture waste, domestic waste water. It is important the Analysis of Water Pollution, from this river, such as heavy metal contaminants, pesticide contaminants, PCBs, VOCs and POPs. • We have to learn how to work as a team, as a multidisciplinary group of specialists, we all know it is a difficult task to achieve. From my side I will make my best to accomplish such a compromise at any program that I could be involved in the near future.

  19. Sciences Faculty

  20. HYOGO PREFECTURE The Sysmbols of Hyogo Prefectural Flat: The Chinese character "Hyo" of "Hyogo" stands out as white waves against a bright blue background, representing the surrounding sea and freshness. The design symbolizes the vitality of Hyogo Prefecture itself, which faces the sea in both the north and the south. Prefectural Flower: Nojigiku Nojigiku is a wild chrysanthemum growing in the Harima District on the shores of the Seto Inland Sea. Every November it blooms with perfectly-formed white flowers about 3 cm across. Hyogo Prefecture is believed to be the northernmost limit where this flower grows in the wild. Prefectural Bird: The Stork Prefectural Tree: Kusu-no-ki The stork is a large bird with a body more than one meter long and a wingspan of some two meters. It was designated by Japan as a specially protected animal in 1956. More than 50 storks have been raised in Toyooka and some other cities. The camphor tree, or Kusu-no-ki, is found throughout Hyogo Prefecture. This evergreen looks its best in early spring. It grows fairly fast and reaches some 20 meters in height. Resistant to the vagaries of the elements, its form is full of vigor and vitality and well embodies the image of Hyogo Prefecture.

  21. Nijon e kuru koto ga dekite ureshii desu JICA NO MINASAN, DOMO ARIGATO GOZAIMASHITA