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PEAR Package

PEAR Package

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PEAR Package

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  1. PEAR Package Nikolay Kostov Telerik Corporation

  2. Summary • What is PEAR? • Mail • Database • Authentication • XML

  3. What is PEAR? • PEAR is a set of classes and templates, available in the PHP distribution • Provides large set of reusable components • Object-oriented • Aids and speeds up development • Fixes some cross-platform issues

  4. To install PEAR package management system execute C:\PHP\go-pear.bat Listing installed packages: Installing PEAR C:\>pear list INSTALLED PACKAGES, CHANNEL PEAR.PHP.NET: ========================================= PACKAGE VERSION STATE Mail 1.2.0b1 beta Mail_Mime 1.5.2 stable Mail_mimeDecode 1.5.0 stable Net_SMTP 1.3.2 stable Net_Socket 1.0.9 stable PEAR 1.7.2 stable Structures_Graph 1.0.2 stable

  5. To install a PEAR package you should know its name and version number Example: Installing PEAR package C:\>pear install Mail_Mime downloading Mail_Mime-1.5.2.tgz ... Starting to download Mail_Mime-1.5.2.tgz (22,176 bytes) ........done: 22,176 bytes downloading Mail_mimeDecode-1.5.0.tgz ... Starting to download Mail_mimeDecode-1.5.0.tgz (9,281 bytes) ...done: 9,281 bytes install ok: channel:// install ok: channel://

  6. PEAR Public Web Site contains lots of open-source PEAR packages for free use Contains package name, documentation, tutorials, examples, etc. PEAR packages are object-oriented Everyone can submit new packages for public use PEAR Public Web Site

  7. Mail Package • PHP provides the mail function • Uses sendmail program, available in Lunix/Unix systems • Works only with SMTP servers without encrypted authentication • PEAR Mail package allows sending trough SMTP servers, that require authentication, using IMAP, generates mails in MIME format, etc.

  8. Sending Mail • Sending email with PEAR is done in 3 steps: • Include the PEAR libraries • The Mail.php file is usually enough • Create new instance of the needed mail backend with the factory method • Supports "mail", "sendmail", "smtp" • Send the email with the send method

  9. Sending Mail with PEAR – Example require "Mail.php"; $body = "Как върви?"; $to = "Пешо <>"; $headers = array ("Subject" => "Тема", "From"=>"Pesho<>", "To" => $to, "Content-Type" => "text/plain; charset=UTF-8"; $smtpinfo = array ("host"=>"", "port" => "25", "auth" => true, "username" => "smtp_user", "password" => "smtp_password"); $mail_obj=&Mail::factory("smtp", $smtpinfo); $mail_obj->send($to, $headers, $body);

  10. Mime Mails • The PEAR package also provides the Mail_mime class • Provides tools for sending emails with attachments, alternative content and etc. • Located in the Mail\mime.php file in the PEAR directory • The class is used only for generating the content of the mail, sending is handled the same way, as normal email

  11. Mime Mail – Example require "Mail.php"; require "Mail\mime.php"; $message = new Mail_mime(); $message->setTXTBody ("text body"); $message->setHTMLBody ("<html>…"); $message->addAttachment("\home\"); $body = $message->get(); $headers = $message->headers ( array ('From' => '', 'To' => '', 'Subject' => 'The zip file')); $mail=&Mail::factory ("smtp", …); $mail->send ('', $headers, $body); Generates the body of the email in MIME format Converts and adds headers in MIME format The sending is the same as normal email

  12. DB (MDB2) • DB is abstract layer for database handling • Newer version of PEAR merged it with other packages and renamed it to MDB2 • Object oriented approach • Emulates replace, sequence, prepare/execute and others if the RDBMS do not support it • Allows secure connection with SSL • Installing: • pearinstallMDB2MDB2_Driver_mysql

  13. DSN • DSN – Data Source Name • Address of data source, used by MDB2 to connect to it • Looks like URL • Can be provided as an array mysql://user:password@localhost/mydb ibase://sysdba:masterey@localhost//var/db.fdb phptype(dbsyntax)://username:password@protocol+hostspec/database?option=value

  14. Connecting the Database • MDB2 provides 3 methods • factory() – will instantiate the driver, but will not connect until required • Useful if application may not require DB connection at all • connect() – will immediately connect • singleton() – checks if connection is already established and returns reference to it • Better than creating global DB object

  15. Connecting the Database require_once "MDB2.php"; $dsn = array ( 'phptype' => 'mysql', 'username' => 'user', 'password' => 'mypass', 'database' => 'mydb'); $options = array (); $mdb = &MDB2::factory ($dsn, $options); if (PEAR::isError($mdb)) die ($mdb->getMessage()); • Second parameter is array with options • Can specify SSL state, result class to be used, debug level, etc

  16. The isError() method • PEAR and all classes in the package provide the isError() method • Static function • Checks if an object is PEAR error object • It is always clearer to call PEAR::isError instead of MDB2::isErrorfor example • This is stated by the PEAR developers • Each package provides the getMessage() method that returns text representation of last execution error

  17. Sending SQL Query • There are several methods for querying the database • All are methods of created MDB2 connection object (result of factory(), connect() or singleton() methods) • query() is the most direct, used for selecting data • Returns a new MDB2 result object or error object • exec() is used for modification queries • Returns number of affected rows or error

  18. Sending Query Example $mdb = &MDB2::factory ($dsn, $options); if (PEAR::isError($mdb)) die ($mdb->getMessage()); $res = &$mdb->query ("select * from foo"); if (PEAR::isError($res)) die ($res->getMessage()); $affected = &$mdb->exec("delete from foo"); if (PEAR::isError($affected)) die ($affected >getMessage()); • Notice $res->getMessage() and $affected->getMessage()

  19. Select Results • The object, returned from query method has several methods for fetching the data • fetchOne() – return single field from a column • fetchRow() – fetch entire row and move to next row • fetchCol(),fetchAll() – returns the data from all rows, respectively single or all columns

  20. Fetch Modes • MDB2 provides three modes for the data, returned by the fetch methods • Ordered – default way, arrays returned are with numeric indexes, same order as in the query • MDB2_FETCHMODE_ORDERED • Associative – indexes of the array are the names of the fields • MDB2_FETCHMODE_ASSOC • Object – returns object, instead of array, the properties names match the fields names • MDB2_FETCHMODE_OBJECT

  21. Fetch Modes • The fetch mode can be set with the setFetchMode method of the MDB2 object or can be supplied to the fetchRow method $mdb = &MDB2::factory ($dsn, $options); if (PEAR::isError($mdb)) die ($mdb->getMessage()); //set default fetch mode $mdb->setFetchMode(MDB2_FETCHMODE_OBJECT); $res = &$mdb->query ("select * from foo"); while ($row = &$res->fetchRow()) echo $row->id;

  22. More MDB2 • fetchRow() also can accept second parameter – the row number to fetch • The result object has several useful methods: • rowCount(), numCols() • getColumnNames() • seek() – jump to row in the result • MDB2 provides methods for working with BLOBs as streams

  23. Quoting and Escaping • MDB2 provides quote() method • Specific to the database • Formats the data accordingly • Important parameters • Data (some variable or value) • Data type (optional) , e. g. "integer", "text", "timestamp", etc. • The escape methods is similar but does not quote the value

  24. Quoting and Escaping • The example: • Will produce string like: $query = 'insert into employees (name, isWorking, dateHired, salary) values ('. $mdb->quote($name, 'text').', ', $mdb->quote($isWorking, 'boolean').', '. $mdb->quote($dateHired, 'date').', '. $mdb->quote($salary, 'integer').')'; insert into employees ( 'Jack', 1, '2008-01-03', 1000)

  25. PEAR Authentication • PEAR provides several simple class for authentication purposes • Uses database for storing the username and password information • Provides simple methods for checking valid user, registering, etc. • Downsides • Does not provide methods for user access levels • Does not provide automated way to store IP as part of the login data • Also provides classes for HTTP and RADIUS authentication

  26. PEAR Auth Object • All the authorization methods are in the Auth class • The constructor takes several parameters • Storage driver (usually database, identified by "DB") • Options array • Name of function that prints login form • Boolean: whether authentication is required • The start() method initializes the authentication process

  27. Auth Options • The constructor options are supplied as associative array • dsn – data source name, required • table – required when using database • usernamecol , passwordcol - the names of the columns that hold the user names and passwords • cryptType – the function used to encrypt the password (MD5, SHA, etc) • db_fields – comma separated list of fields that should be fetched with the user data • Can use * for all

  28. Auth methods • checkAuth – returns boolean, whether valid session authentication information exists • logout – closes the session • addUser – adds new user to the database • First two parameters are the username and password, the rest are optional and depend on the database structure • getAuthData() – returns extra information, stored in the Auth session

  29. Auth – Example $opt = array ( 'dsn' => 'mysql://user:pass@localhost/db', 'db_fields' => '*', 'usernamecol' => 'username', 'passwordcol' => 'pass'); // note the parameters supplied function loginfrm ($username = null, $status=null, &$auth=null) { echo "<form method=\"post\"… // it is required to send over post, // fields are named "username" and "password" } // continue to next slide

  30. Auth Example (2) // continue from previous slide $authobj = new Auth('DB', $opt, 'loginfrm'); $authobj->start(); if ($authobj->checkAuth()) { /* print data, visible only for registered users */ } else { echo 'Please, login';}

  31. Example Logout Page // continue from previous slide $authobj = new Auth('DB', $opt, 'loginfrm'); $authobj->start(); if ($authobj->checkAuth()) { $authobj->logout(); $authobj->start(); //not necessary}

  32. XML • PEAR provides packages for both parsing and serializing of XML data • Supports Unicode XML files • PHP has great support of reflection objects • Objects that create properties at runtime • This gives tools to easily turn XML into objects and vice-versa

  33. XML_Serializer • The PEAR XML_Serializer class is used to turn objects and arrays into XML • Main methods: • serialize ($data) – turns PHP data structure into XML, returns true or PEAR Error object • getSerializedData – returns the serialized XML document • setOptions – sets serializing options • Same options can be passed to the class constructor

  34. XML_Serializer options • addDecl – boolean, whether to add XML declaration "<?xml version… ?>" • encoding – sets document encoding • Added to the XML declaration too • defaultTagName – tag name used to serialize the values in indexed array • rootName – the name of the root tag • rootAttributes – associative array with attributes to add to the root tag

  35. XML_Serializer options • scalarAsAttributes – boolean, for associative arrays. If values in array are scalars they will be added as attributes of the tag • addDoctype – boolean, if doctype declaration should be added to the document • doctype – specify the URIs to be user in the DOCTYPE declaration • typeHints –sets if type/class info should be stored too

  36. Serializing – Example require_once 'XML/Serializer.php'; $palette = array ('red', 'green', 'blue'); $options = array ( "addDecl" => true, "encoding" => 'UTF-8', "rootName"=> 'palette', "defaultTagName" => 'color'); $serializer = new XML_Serializer($options); $serializer->serialize($palette); $xml = $serializer->getSerializedData(); <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <palette> <color>red</color> <color>green</color> <color>blue</color> </palette>

  37. Serializing Associative Array – Example … $data = array ( 'red' => 45, 'green' => 100, 'blue' => 80); … $serializer->serialize($data); … <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <palette> <red>45</red> <green>100</green> <blue>80<blue> </palette>

  38. XML_Unserialize • PEAR XML_Unserialize class parses XML data and returns nested associative and indexed arrays • Allows parsing to create objects instead of arrays • If the necessary classes are defined and there is class information in the XML • Unlike unserialize function does not have magic method to call (__wakeup)

  39. XML_Unserialize • Like the serializer class has one main method • unserialize ($data, $isFile, $options) • If $isFile is supplied as true, the class considers $data to be file name or stream resource to read the XML from • options can be supplied to the constructor, the unserialize method or via the setOptions method

  40. XML_Unserialize options • parseAttributes • If set to true tag attributes are parsed into arrays • attributesArray • The name of the array into which attributes data will be placed • tagMap • Allows mapping of XML tag to a PHP class to parse the data into

  41. Unserializing example <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <palette> <color>red</color> <color>green</color> <color>blue</color> </palette> $unserializer = new XML_Unserializer(); $unserializer->unserialize($xml); Array ( [color] => Array ( [0] => red [1] => green [2] => blue ) )

  42. Unserializing example • Using the same code • This time we get back the same data <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <palette> <red>45</red> <green>100</green> <blue>80<blue> </palette> Array ( [red] => 45 [green] => 100 [blue] => 80 )

  43. Install the following PEAR packages: MDB2, MDB2_Driver_mysql, Mail_Mime, XML_Serializer Using PEAR MDB2 implement the following: Connect to MySQL database Show all data from MySQL table Messages Insert new message Using XML_Serializer convert all messages from the database table Messages to XML file named messages.xml. Send the file messages.xml to your email as attachment. PEAR Package

  44. PEAR Package ? Questions? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?