Ukraine An in depth look at Crimea The Ukrainian National Anthem Ukraine is not yet dead, nor its glory and freedom, Luck will still smile on us brother-Ukrainians.Our enemies will die, as the dew does in the sunshine, and we, too, brothers, we'll live happily in our land.We'll not spare either our souls or bodies to get freedom and we'll prove that we brothers are of Kozak kin.We'll rise up, brothers, all of us, from the Sain to the Don, We won't let anyone govern in out motherland.The Black Sea will smile yet, grandfather Dnipro will rejoice, Yet in our Ukraine luck will be high.Our persistence, our sincere toil will prove its rightness, still our freedom's loud song will spread throughout Ukraine.It'll reflect upon the Carpathians, will sound through the steppes, and Ukraine's glory will arise among the people.
Things to be discussed today! • A short history of the country • Geography of the area and more specifically, of the Crimean Peninsula • Crimea’s history • Recent Conflicts with occupation of ethnic Russians and Tatars in Crimea • Baltic Sea Fleet history and issues involved • Crimea as a vacation hot spot www.mscc.edu/webs/rmerritt/swallows.jpg
A chronology of key events • 1917 - Central Rada (Council) set up in Kiev following collapse of Russian Empire. • 1918 - Ukraine declares independence: Ukrainian People's Republic set up within the boundaries of the Soviet Union.
World War II • 1941 - Ukraine suffers terrible wartime devastation as Nazis occupy the country until 1944. • More than 5 million Ukrainians die fighting Nazi Germany. Most of Ukraine's 1.5 million Jews wiped out by the Nazis. • 1944 - Stalin deports 200,000 Crimean Tatars to Siberia and Central Asia following accusations of collaboration with Nazi Germany. • 1945 - Allied victory in World War II leads to Soviet annexation of western Ukrainian lands mainly from Poland
Soviet Years • 1960s - Increase in covert opposition to Soviet rule, leading to repression of dissidents in 1972.
1986 - A reactor at the Chernobyl nuclear power station explodes, sending a radioactive plume across Europe. Desperate efforts are made to contain the damaged reactor within a huge concrete cover. Many armed forces personnel die of radiation sickness. • 1988 - Prominent writers and intellectuals set up Ukrainian People's Movement for Restructuring (Rukh). • 1990 - Student protests and hunger strikes bring down government
Independence • 1991 - Ukraine declares independence following attempted coup in Moscow: 90% vote for independence in nationwide referendum in December. home.nestor.minsk.by/fsunews/ukraine/1994/ua119.html
Early to mid 1990s - About 250,000 Crimean Tatars and their descendants return to Crimea following collapse of Soviet Union. • 1994 - Presidential elections: Leonid Kuchma succeeds Leonid Kravchuk. • 1997 - Friendship treaty signed with Russia. Ukraine and Russia also reach agreement on the Black Sea fleet. • 1999 - President Kuchma re-elected. www.euronet.nl/users/sota/krimtatar.html
II. Geography of Ukraine • Eastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Poland and Russia • slightly smaller than Texas • most of Ukraine consists of fertile plains (steppes) and plateaus, mountains being found only in the west (the Carpathians) • temperate continental; precipitation is highest in west and north, lesser in east and southeast; winters vary from cool along the Black Sea to cold farther inland; summers are warm across the greater part of the country, hot in the south www.meatnpotatoes.com/nations/maps/up-map-big.jpg
Geography of the Crimean Peninsula • Located in southern Ukraine • Juts into the Black Sea and connects to the mainland by a narrow strip of land at Perekop • Dry steppes cover more than two-thirds of the peninsula, and the Crimean mountains in the south rise up to 1,500 m. • The southern coast, protected by the mountains, has a mild climate • The Arabat Spit, which is a sand bar (110 km long) that extends northeast from the Kerch peninsula, separates the marshy Sivash Sea from the Sea of Azov. http://www.euronet.nl/users/sota/krimgeo.html
The major cities are Simferopol, the capital; Sevastopol, the base of Russian Black Sea Fleet; and Yalta and Evpatoria , major tourist areas. Bakhchisaray was the capital of the Crimean Khanate. Agriculture, tourism, mining, fishing, and winemaking provide the mainstay in the Crimea. Farms in the steppes produce wheat, cotton, tobacco, and garden crops. Health resorts and tourist facilities are found along the coastal areas. There is limited mining (salt beds and iron ores) on the Kerch peninsula. freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~cohenscorner/Lechno/maps/Lechno_map_Feodosia.htm http://feefhs.org/maps/ruse/re-crime.html
Crimean Populations • The population of the Crimea was 2,550,000 in 1991, consisting of Russians (65%); Ukrainians (22%); Crimean Tatars (10%); and Belorusians, Armenians, Greeks, Germans, and Karaims (3%).
III. Crimea’s History • The Crimean peninsula itself was inhabited by various peoples. • The ancient Greeks established colonies on the coast in the 6th century B.C. • Later the control of the sea ports passed on to the Romans and eventually the Byzantines. • Following the disintegration of the Golden Horde, Crimean aristocrats established their own Khanate www.blacksea-crimea.com/WebAlbums/Khersoness-album/pages/Scan38.html www.galenfrysinger.com/tatar_khanate_crimea.htm
Khanate became subject to the Ottoman rule in 1475 • For 300 years the Crimean Khanate remained political power in eastern Europe, making alliances with Poland, Lithuania, and Sweden. www.victorianweb.org/history/crimea/ottomap.html www.iccrimea.org/reports/18may2002.html
In 1783, Russian forces occupied the Crimea, ending the rule of the Khanate. • In 1944 deportation of the entire Crimean Tatar population by Stalin due to the accusation that they were associated with the Nazi’s. • In 1954, Crimea was then transferred from the RSFSR (Russia) to Ukrainian SSR. www.tifft.com/ mandubke4.html
In 1956 they regained civil rights and since the late 1980s many have returned to Crimea. • With the collapse of the Soviet Union, Crimea therefore became part of the newly independent Ukraine, a situation resented by the majority of its population. With the Black Sea Fleet based on the peninsula there were worries of armed conflict. • With the electoral defeat of the more radical nationalist political forces in Ukraine tension slowly eased. http://foto.sevastopol.info/gallery/faces/page007.htm
Independence • The Crimea proclaimed independence on May 5th, 1992 but later it agreed to become an autonomous territory in the Ukraine. http://www.ukremb.info/news.php
IV. Ethnic Russian unrest in Crimea • Moderate risk of rebellion in near future • High levels of cohesion and organization • Consistent protests csf.colorado.edu/roper/ defl-waves/russia.html
Simferopol • This city is the capital of Crimean region http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/commonwealth/simferopol_ukraine_tpc_89.jpg
Conflicts with Ukraine central government No identification with Ukraine, Crimea, or even Russia, but with the Soviet Union State-level language laws Policies on Tatar immigration Conflicts with Crimean Tatars Political agitation Increased population equals pressure on Russian population and economic resources Russians threatened by religious traditions and higher birth rates Why such a big deal?
Crimean Tatars Recent Dilemmas • As the Crimean Tatars prepare to commemorate the 60th anniversary of their brutal deportation from their homeland on May 18 1944, organized attacks on Crimean Tatars are increasing. • A group of skinheads stabbed a Crimean Tatar in Simferopol, an incident that later led to a clash in a local cafe. • Anti-Crimean Tatar reporting in the Russian mass media. http://www.iccrimea.org/reports/18may2002.html
Black Sea Fleet - History • Sevastopol was founded as a city after the Russian annexation in 1783 of Crimea. • It was strongly fortified and in 1804 became the chief base of the Russian Black Sea fleet. • In Sept., 1855, the French successfully stormed the fortress and three days later the Russians were forced to abandon Sevastopol. A record has been preserved in The Tales of Sevastopol by Tolstoy • In 1890 the city again became a chief naval base for the Russians. • In 1942, German and Romanian troops at last took the city. • Transferred to the Ukrainian SSR in 1954 and became part of the independent Ukraine in 1991. • A 1995 agreement called for four fifths of the fleet to fall under Russian control and in 1997 it was agreed that Russia would be allowed to base its fleet at Sevastopol for 20 years.
Accord Reached on Fleet • Two nations spilt BSF 50-50 and Russia bought back some of the more modern ships. • Leasing for 20 years is going to cost $97.75 million/year for Russia. • Ukraine will pay $526 million for use of part of the fleet and $200 million for 1992 transfer of Ukraine’s nuclear arsenal to Russia.
Crimea as a Vacation Hot Spot! Even though you are going to come to your friend from other part of Ukraine than Crimea, we strongly recommend you to spend time in Crimea, because it is the most fancy and pleasant place in Ukraine, it is the most known and desired resort in Ukraine and your friend would value your decision to spend time here even on winter or fall. Remember - Crimea in Ukraine is like Florida in the USA. http://www.crimee.com/book-e.html
Yalta • You want to see trees? Feel a cool breeze on your sun-blanched skin? A nice view of the city lights? Find a place to swim, sail, camp, hike, rock climb or mountain bike? • Yalta is the resort center of Crimea. It is a beautiful city. There are 14 hotels and 26 sanatorium and boarding houses. http://www.galenfrysinger.com/crimea_ukraine.htm http://www.yalta.narod.ru/Yalta.jpg
Alupkinsky Palace http://www.galenfrysinger.com/crimea_ukraine.htm
Livadia Palace http://www.galenfrysinger.com/crimea_ukraine.htm built for Tsar Nicholas II in 1911
Foros • The warmest region of Crimea. Most state residences are located here. The rocky walls are about 500 meters directly to the sea, forming a shallow zone. http://ukraine.host.sk/foros.htm
The church on the 400m high rock at Foros looks straight out over the Black Sea. It also is above a resort that Gorbachev was on holiday at when the military coup took place in Moscow. He was held under house arrest there, while the news media gave out the lie that he was sick and receiving medical treatment in Crimea. http://ukraine.host.sk/foros.htm
Gurzuf • A cozy settlement of Gurzuf is not far from Yalta in one of the most beautiful valleys of Crimea cut by the Avinda River. http://www.extremetour.dp.ua/foto/pesh012002/gurzuf.jpg
Natural landscapes are perfectly complemented by the old parks and vineyards scattered on the mountain slopes. Wonderful natural conditions and the purest air filled with the aromas of the mountains, sea, and parks, make Gurzuf one of the best places to vacation. http://vlad.gurzuf.ru/photo/index.php
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