What we didn’t like about the British . . . Taxation without representation Large central government had all the power States always had to listen to the king All power in the King’s Hands King could change rules/laws anytime So the Articles of Confederation. . . . Federal government could not tax States didn’t have to follow laws and treaties States had their own laws and didn’t have to listen to other states No executive branch or national court system Any amendment required all 13 states Articles of Confederation
Articles of Confederation • Because the government of the United States was so weak, there was a push to create a New Constitution for the United States!!!
Federalist Papers Supported the Constitution Powerful central government. 2-house legislature with one house (Senate) being more removed from the people Property owners, merchants from the North, landed rich John Adams, James Madison, Alexander Hamilton Anti-Federalist Papers Against the Constitution Wanted stronger state governments, more elections, more direct democracy Small farmers, shopkeepers,laborers Thomas Jefferson Many of their beliefs found their way into the Bill of Rights! (1st 10 Amendments) Significance
Significance of Declaration of Independence • Created the first ever Declared Independence from a Monarchy! • Influenced Rest of the world by describing how unjust governments could be replaced by revolution
Significance of the Constitution • Creates checks and balances • Creates a Federal System of Government that is found in each state! • Creates separation of powers: Executive, Judicial, Legislative Branches
Significance of Northwest Ordinance • Creates a plan for new territories to become states one day! • Divides up land through surveys!
Homestead Act of 1862 • Government provides 160 acres of free land to any citizen or person who wants to become one • 1862 – 1900 = 600,000 took advantage • Helps settle the West! • Land came from railroads that did not need all the land
Dawes Act of 1887 • Goal: How to Americanize the Indians • Broke up Indian Reservations and gave some of the land to Indians = 160 Acres • Result: 2/3rds of Land set aside for Indians sold to settlers!!
Effects of Reconstruction • Creates the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments = Civil war Amendments • Some Radical Republicans wanted to Punish the South! • Slaves were free and southern states could not secede!