Download
refinery basics n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Refinery Basics PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Refinery Basics

Refinery Basics

537 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation

Refinery Basics

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Refinery Basics John Kulluk Ph.D. Torrance Fire Department & Robert Distaso PE – 714/573-6253 Orange County Fire Authority

  2. Refining Means. . . 1. To reduce to a pure state, to remove impurities 2. To improve or perfect

  3. Refinery Process Flow Chart Sulfur Gas Plant Fuel Gas Isom Distilling Splitter Gasoline Reformer Jet Fuel Hydrotreating Distillate Fuel Hydrotreating Alky CCU Flasher ResidualFuel Visbreaker Leffler, 1985

  4. Other Refinery Units • Steam Generation • Wastewater Treatment • Hydrogen Generation • Power Generation (e.g., cogen) • Air Separation Plant • Loading/Unloading - Railcar, Trucks, etc. • Storage (high pressure hydrocarbon, crude oil, intermediates) • Floating-Roof Tanks - 150‘ diameter is common • Spherical Tanks - 50‘ are common • Horton Spheroid (refrigerated) • Steam-Heated Tanks for “Heavier” Products • Self-Contained Firewater Supply • Firewater Pumps

  5. What is Crude Oil? • Mixture of organic carbon chain molecules • Impurities include sulfur and nitrogen compounds • Some metals and salts too

  6. Straight-Chain Hydrocarbons Olefins Cyclic H/C Aromatics (Benzene, toluene, xylenes) Mercaptans Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) Greases Propane LPG Components such as . . .

  7. Other Hazardous Materials • Sulfur • Hydrofluoric Acid (HF) • Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4) • Ammonia (NH3) • Sodium Hypochlorite • Radioactive Materials • Chlorine • Amines • MEK • Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) • Heavy Metal Catalysts • Sour Water • Caustic (fresh/spent) • Alcohol • Asbestos

  8. What’s All this Stuff?

  9. What Goes on at a Refinery. . .? • Separation of components by distillation, e.g.: • Atmospheric • Vacuum • Hydrotreating (uses excess hydrogen) • Breaking apart molecules to make smaller ones, e.g.: • catalytic cracking • hydrocracking • Joining molecules to make bigger ones, e.g.: • Reforming - alkylation that lengthens the hydrocarbon chain • Reforming - cyclic that generates hydrogen

  10. Physical Hazards • High Pressure/Temperature Steam • Oil/Gas-Fired Furnaces • Acoustic • High Voltage (4160V, 480V, 13.2 kV) • Falling Hazards • Confined Space Hazards • Cranes/Lifting Hazards • Hot Work Hazards • Acid Exposure • Toxic Vapors • Radiation • Flammability Hazards

  11. Common PPE Requirements • Hardhat • Hardsoled / Hardtoe Shoes • Safety Glasses with Side Protection • Safety Goggles or Faceshield • Fire-Resistant Clothing

  12. Process Hazards • Emergency Flare • Atmospheric Pressure Relief • High Temperature (up to 2000oF) • Low Temperature (e.g., Brittle Fracture) • High Pressure (up to 3000 psig) • Low Pressure (e.g., vacuum)

  13. QUESTIONS ?