The Birth of the Republican Party Democratic Party – still alive but weaker New party – Republican Party - emerges Who are these Republicans?
Election of 1860: Main Candidates Abraham Lincoln (Republican) John Breckinridge (Southern Democrat) Stephen Douglas (Northern Democrat) John Bell (Constitutional Union) * Lincoln won the election.
Secession: • In response to Lincoln’s victory, the southern states seceded from the Union in 1861, forming the Confederate States of America. Original Confederate flag Eventual Confederate flag
A PERSONAL VOICE WILLIAM TECUMSEH SHERMAN “ This country will be drenched in blood. . . . [T]he people of the North . . . are not going to let this country be destroyed without a mighty effort to save it. . . . Besides, where are your men and appliances of war to contend against them? . . . You are rushing into war with one of the most powerful, ingeniously mechanical and determined people on earth—right at your doors. . . . Only in spirit and determination are you prepared for war. In all else you are totally unprepared.” —quoted in None Died in Vain
• Jefferson Davis was named the president of the Confederacy.
Fort Sumter • Fort Sumter, South Carolina, was important because it guarded Charleston harbor • Therefore, the Confederates attacked, defeating the Union soldiers. * The Civil War had now begun!
Ruffin, Pvt. Edmund, Confederate soldier who fired the first shot against Fort Sumter Anderson, Maj. Robert, defender of Fort Sumter
Bombardment of Fort Sumter, Charleston Harbor April 12 and 13, 1861
Objective:To examine the advantages, disadvantages, and strategies of both the Union and the Confederacy. • Who had the advantage at the start of the Civil War, the Union or the Confederacy, and why do you think so?
Union Advantage • large population of 22 million Confederate Disadvantage • small population of 9 million, of which 1/3 were slaves
Union Advantage • excellent railroad system Confederate Disadvantage • poor railroad system
Audio Excerpt: Union and Confederate Advantages Confederate Advantages Union Disadvantages • The South was a huge area to conquer. • fought a defensive war at home • defending their homeland • The North invaded unfamiliar territory.
Strategies for Victory Union plans: · blockade Southern ports · seize control of the Mississippi River, trying to split Confederacy in two · capture the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia
Confederate plans: · To stay at home and fight a defensive war. · The South believed that the North would quickly tire of fighting and give up. · The South counted on European money and supplies.
FIRST BATTLES: Objective: To examine the role of the navy and the battles of Bull Run and Antietam.
Battle of Bull Run - Animation · 1st Union attack on the Confederacy in July of 1861.
· The Confederates, led by Gen. Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson, won the battle. SIGNIFICANCE: *This battle showed each side that they needed training. • It also showed that the war would be long and bloody. • Confederate moral soared
July 21, 1861 - Ruins of the Stone Bridge over which Northern forces retreated until it was blown up by a Rebel shell adding to the panic of the retreat, with the Federals returning to Washington as "a rain-soaked mob."
Naval Action · The Union blockade on Southern ports hurt the South. · Therefore, the South created an ironclad ship called the Merrimack to attack the Union navy.
In response, the North created an ironclad ship called the Monitor. * Ironclad ships changed naval warfare forever! The U.S.S. Monitor was the first Union iron-clad ship. This picture shows the deck and the turret of the U.S.S. Monitor.
The Hunley – The world’s first submarine, designed and used in the Civil War by the Confederacy.
Illustration of the H.L. Hunley submarine with its bow-mounted spar torpedo.
Friends of the Hunley H. L. Hunley, suspended from a crane during its recovery from Charleston Harbor, August 8, 2000.
How did Lincoln respond to loss at Bull Run? • Stepping up enlistments • Appointed Gen. George McClellan to lead forces near DC. • Increased Union fighting in west for control of Mississippi River • By Feb 1862, invades Tennessee under led by Gen. Ulysses Grant
Antietam (Ann-Tee-Tum) · The Confederate General Robert E. Lee decided to attack the Union in Maryland, on Union soil, in September of 1862. · Over 23,000 Union and Confederate troops were killed or wounded.
Dead Confederate soldiers after the Battle of Antietam (from Starke's Louisiana Brigade)
Lincoln with McClellan and staff after the Battle of Antietam. Notable figures (from left) are 6. McClellan; 10. Lincoln; 16. Capt. George Armstrong Custer.
President Lincoln and Gen. George B. McClellan in the general's tent near the Antietam battlefield, October 3, 1862.
What about foreign powers? • Many thought because of cotton, Great Britain would recognize confederacy as an independent nation – this was not the case. • South continued to pursue foreign recognition
What’s going on with the abolitionists? • As Jefferson Davis’s Confederacy struggled in vain to gain foreign recognition, abolitionist feeling grew in the North. What was Lincolns position? • disliked slavery, he did not believe that the federal government had the power to abolish it where it already existed. However, as the war continued….