Part II: The English Reformation A saga of loyalty, disloyalty, love and lust
If we remember, England had been through a long civil war prior to Henry VII’s succession
The objectives for this slide show are: • You will know why the War of the Roses influenced the actions of Henry VII and Henry VIII • Identify the reasons for Henry VIII’s split from the Catholic Church • What role did Catherine of Aragon and Anne Boleyn play in precipitating this split? • Judge for yourself: did Henry remain a Catholic or not in his beliefs?
Henry had married Elizabeth of York to solidify his claim But the War of the Roses remained in living memory. Henry VII would be called a usurper from time to time
Henry VII had two sons and two daughters who survived infancy • His eldest son, Arthur, married the daughter of Catherine of Aragon. • Catherine was the daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella • Catherine was the sister of Juana de Loco—Crazy Joanna who wouldn’t let her husband’s body be buried
Catherine had a rich dowry—England could not risk letting it go back to Spain Arthur died 6 months after he had married Catherine, in 1502
Later on, this would be a question of primary importance: Was the marriage of Catherine of Aragon and Arthur consummated? Catherine of Aragon always insisted that they had lived together as brother and sister because of their young ages (15 and 16)
Catherine remained in England, in limbo, for seven years after Arthur died. • While living in England, she was impoverished and a pawn between England and Spain • Henry VII initially tried to betroth her to his surviving son, Prince Henry. • Henry VII dies in 1509, and his son accedes the throne as Henry VIII • Her father, Ferdinand of Aragon, insists that she marry the younger brother of Arthur, Prince Henry
Henry VIII marries Catherine, despite the doubts of the Pope, Julius II, and the Archbishop of Canterbury. They expressed concern that Catherine would now have been married to both brothers.
Initially, Catherine and Henry had a happy marriage • They were both religious • Henry VIII even wrote a book called “The Defense of Seven Sacraments.”
The Defense of Seven Sacraments defended the many sacraments of the Catholic church that were being attacked by the reformers as needless and repetitive
Catherine bore Henry many children. They were either still born or lived a brief time. Only a daughter, Mary, survived.
Henry began to feel that his marriage was cursed because of the lack of heirs. He sought an annulment from the Pope based on the fact that Catherine had been married to his brother.
The Pope should have granted Henry VIII the annulment because annulments for lesser reasons had occurred amongst EuropeanRoyalty Can you guess why he did not grant the annulment to Henry?
Catherine objected to the divorce—and it was her nephew Charles V who supported her objection The Pope did not want to displease the Emperor
He appointed Cardinal Wolsey to help him He asked (or forced) his followers to take an oath of supremacy The Act of Supremacy made the English King head of the Church of England. It was signed in 1534. Henry took the bold move to separate from the Catholic Church
Sir Thomas More, a friend of Erasmus, was executed for refusing to sign the oath
Originally, he did not intend to change the doctrines at all. He just wanted to be the head of the church and not subject to the Pope’s authority. Once the separation began, many reformers in England saw this as a welcome move Henry’s attitude became more extreme over time
These reformers closely followed the development of Lutheranism on mainland Europe
Henry VIII was in love with Anne Boleyn—this gave him another excuse to pursue the separation from Rome
Anne would not become his mistress. She wanted to be Queen or nothing else Their courtship went on for almost seven years. Henry VIII risked all for his lust of Anne Boleyn
Never lose your mind over a woman. Or you will keep these people in business
Henry VIII confiscated monastic lands and church wealth as the English Reformation ensued
The monasteries were dissolved.The land and wealth was passed out to Henry’s loyal followers
Many monasteries and abbeys fell into disrepair and ruin Their ruins inspired the Romantic poets of the early 19th century
Other church buildings were saved when they became Protestant Churches
Many churches suffer vandalism when their statues and windows are smashed in an anti-Catholic reaction
The landed classes will continue to support the Kings and Queens of England
They have a daughter, Elizabeth, in 1533 • Henry moves quickly to eliminate Anne when she gives birth to a still born son a year and a half later
Anne was put on trial, and the accusations against her were solicited under torture.
Anne was executed by a French Swordsman at the Tower of London in 1536
She left the baby Elizabeth who will eventually become England’s greatest Queen
Henry goes on to have four more wives. His third wife, Jane Seymour will finally give him son. She will die ten days later
Henry will not be attracted to fourth wife, Anne of Cleves. They have an amicable divorce
Fifth wife Catherine Howard will be found guilty of adultery/treason She will be executed in 1542.
Six wife, Catherine Parr, survives Henry. She attempts to unite the three half siblings, Mary, Elizabeth, and Edward
Henry VIII will not show visible regret over his bringing about the English Reformation. His personal beliefs swayed between Catholicism and Protestantism. He dies in 1547. So much was at stake that he saw it through, despite many private disappointments
So, as we end this part of our story, we can recall the ditty:Henry VIII had six wives—One divorcedOne beheadedOne diedOne divorcedOne beheadedOne survived
The objectives for this slide show were: • You will know why the War of the Roses influenced the actions of Henry VII and Henry VIII • Identify the reasons for Henry VIII’s split from the Catholic Church • What role did Catherine of Aragon and Anne Boleyn play in precipitating this split? • Judge for yourself: did Henry remain a Catholic or not in his beliefs?