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O varian cyst

O varian cyst

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O varian cyst

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  1. Ovarian cyst - is any collection of fluid, surrounded by a very thin wall, within an ovary. -Any ovarian that is larger than about two centimeters is termed an ovarian cyst. An ovarian cyst can be as small, or large. -Most ovarian cysts are functional in nature, and harmless (benign) In the US, ovarian cysts are found in nearly all premenopausal women, and in up to 14.8% of postmenopausal women. -Ovarian cysts affect women of all ages.

  2. Ovarian cyst Ovarian cysts are fluid-filled sacs, similar to blisters, that are common among women during their reproductive years. They form on the ovaries, the almond-sized organs on each side of the uterus. Most types of ovarian cysts are harmless and go away without any treatment. They occur most often, however, during a woman's childbearing years.Some ovarian cysts cause problems, such as bleeding and pain. Surgery may be required to remove cysts larger than 5 centimeters in diameter.

  3. Classification Non-functional cysts There are several other conditions affecting the ovary that are described as types of cysts, but are not usually grouped with the functional cysts. (Some of these are more commonly or more properly known by other names.) These include: Dermoid cyst Chocolate cyst of ovary: An endometrioma, endometrioid cyst, endometrial cyst, or chocolate cyst is caused by endometriosis, and formed when a tiny patch of endometrial tissue (the mucous membrane that makes up the inner layer of the uterine wall) bleeds, sloughs off, becomes transplanted, and grows and enlarges inside the ovaries.

  4. Classification A polycystic-appearing ovary is diagnosed based on its enlarged size — usually twice normal —with small cysts present around the outside of the ovary. It can be found in "normal" women, and in women with endocrine disorders. An ultrasound is used to view the ovary in diagnosing the condition. Polycystic-appearing ovary is different from the polycystic ovarian syndrome, which includes other symptoms in addition to the presence of ovarian cysts.

  5. Signs and symptoms • Some or all of the following symptoms may be present, though it is possible not to experience any symptoms: • Dull aching, or severe, sudden, and sharp pain or discomfort in the lower abdomen (one or both sides), pelvis, vagina, lower back, or thighs; pain may be constant or intermittent—this is the most common symptom Fullness, heaviness, pressure, swelling, or bloating in the abdomen Breast tenderness • Pain during or shortly after beginning or end of menstrual period. • Irregular periods, or abnormal uterine bleeding or spotting • Change in frequency or ease of urination (such as inability to fully empty the bladder), or difficulty with bowel movements due to pressure on adjacent pelvic anatomy

  6. Signs and symptoms Weight gain Nausea or vomiting Fatigue Infertility Increased level of hair growth Increased facial hair or body hair Headaches Strange pains in ribs, which feel muscular Bloating Strange nodules that feel like bruises under the layer of skin

  7. Diagnosis • Ovarian cysts are usually diagnosed by either ultrasound or CT scan. • Treatment -About 95% of ovarian cysts are benign, meaning they are not cancerous. Treatment for cysts depends on the size of the cyst and symptoms. For small, asymptomatic cysts, the wait and see approach with regular check-ups will most likely be recommended. Pain caused by ovarian cysts may be treated with: • pain relievers • including acetaminophen/paracetamol (Tylenol), no steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil), or narcotic pain medicine (by prescription) may help reduce pelvic pain. NSAIDs usually work best when taken at the first signs of the pain.

  8. 2. a warm bath, or heating pad, or hot water bottle applied to the lower abdomen near the ovaries can relax tense muscles and relieve cramping, lessen discomfort, and stimulate circulation and healing in the ovaries.  3. combined methods of hormonal contraception such as the combined oral contraceptive pill – the hormones in the pills may regulate the menstrual cycle, prevent the formation of follicles that can turn into cysts, and possibly shrink an existing cyst. 4. Also, limiting strenuous activity may reduce the risk of cyst rupture or torsion.

  9. Cysts that persist beyond two or three menstrual cycles, or occur in post-menopausal women, may indicate more serious disease and should be investigated -through ultrasonography and laparoscopy, especially in cases where family members have had ovarian cancer. Such cysts may require surgical biopsy. Additionally, a blood test may be taken before surgery to check for elevated CA-125, a tumor marker, which is often found in increased levels in ovarian cancer, although it can also be elevated by other conditions resulting in a large number of false positives. For more serious cases where cysts are large and persisting, doctors may suggest surgery. - Some surgeries can be performed to successfully remove the cyst(s) without hurting the ovaries, while others may require removal of one or both ovaries.

  10. What Causes Ovarian Cysts? The normal function of the ovaries is to produce an egg each month. During the process of ovulation, a cyst-like structure called a follicle is formed inside the ovary. The mature follicle ruptures when an egg is released during ovulation. A corpus luteum forms from the empty follicle, and if pregnancy does not occur, the corpus luteum dissolves. Sometimes, however, this process does not conclude appropriately, causing the most common type of ovarian cyst -- functional ovarian cysts. Abnormal ovarian cysts, such as polycystic ovarian disease, may occur as the result of an imbalance of female hormones (estrogen and progesterone).

  11. Types of Ovarian Cysts Functional Cysts These normal cysts will often shrink and disappear within two or three menstrual cycles. Because this type of cyst is formed during ovulation, it rarely occurs in menopausal women because eggs are no longer being produced. Dermoid Cysts filled with various types of tissues, including hair and skin. Endometrioma Cystsknown as the "chocolate cysts" of endometriosis, and they form when tissue similar to the lining of the uterus attaches to the ovaries. Cyst adenoma CystsThese are ovarian cysts that develop from cells on the outer surface of the ovaries. Polycystic Ovarian DiseaseThis disease refers to cysts that form from a build up of follicles. These cysts cause the ovaries to enlarge and create a thick outer covering, which may prevent ovulation from occurring, and are often the cause of fertility problems.

  12. What are the Symptoms of Ovarian Cysts? Ovarian cysts often cause no symptoms; however, when symptoms are present, ovarian cysts may cause a dull ache or a sense of fullness or pressure in the abdomen. Pain during intercourse and at other times can also indicate the presence of ovarian cysts. Pain or pressure is caused by a number of factors, such as size, bleeding or bursting of a cyst, which irritates the abdominal tissues. Pain can also be caused when a cyst is twisted (called torsion), which can block the flow of blood to the cyst. Other possible symptoms of ovarian cysts include delayed, irregular, or unusually painful periods. If you experience any of these symptoms, notify your doctor as soon as possible.

  13. How are Ovarian Cysts Diagnosed? Unless symptoms are present, ovarian cysts are typically diagnosed during an annual pelvic examination. Other diagnostic tests, such as ultrasound and laparoscopy, may be done if your physician detects any abnormalities.

  14. What are the Treatments for Ovarian Cysts? Treatment of ovarian cysts depends on several factors, including: the size and type of cyst the woman's age and general health her future pregnancy plans what symptoms she is experiencing -The earlier ovarian cysts are found, the less invasive the treatment. -Often, young women who are not experiencing any symptoms are advised to wait two or three months to see if the cysts dissolve on their own. In most cases, functional ovarian cysts will dissolve without any medical intervention or treatment.

  15. What are the Treatments for Ovarian Cysts? Occasionally, physicians opt to prescribe oral contraceptives or hormones to shrink functional ovarian cysts. (Functional cysts are rare in women who use oral contraceptives since this method of birth control prevents ovulation.) Oral contraceptives are not an effective treatment for other types of benign ovarian cysts, but they do offer some protection against malignant ovarian cysts (ovarian cancer). Surgery is sometimes necessary to treat ovarian cysts that are unresponsive to hormonal treatment. Cases that could require surgery include ovarian cysts that do not disappear after a few menstrual cycles and extremely large cysts. Ovarian cysts that are found in post menopausal women, cause symptoms such as severe pain or bleeding, or have become twisted often require a surgical procedure. The specific surgical procedure required depends on a number of factors, but typically the earlier ovarian cysts are discovered, the less extensive the surgery. Surgery can involve anything from simply removing the cyst to removing the ovary. In some severe cases, hysterectomy is recommended.

  16. Things to Remember About Ovarian CystsBecause ovarian cysts often cause no symptoms, it is especially important for women who have previously had cysts to have regular pelvic examinations. Women who have previously had ovarian cysts are at a greater risk of developing further cysts.In addition, endometriosis may be worsened by the presence of ovarian cysts, and your chance of needing to have your ovaries removed increases.In the unusual case of malignant ovarian cysts, early treatment offers the best hope for recovery. Women who develop ovarian cysts after menopause are more likely to have malignancies.Remember, if you experience any fullness, pressure, or discomfort in your pelvic region phone your physician immediately for his advice. The earlier ovarian cysts are discovered and treated, the better your chance of complete recovery.