The American Revolution Eugenia langan Mater academy charter high school Hialeah gardens, florida with thanks to tony miller and susanpojer
Essential questions: • Narrow: • What were the causes of the American Revolution? • What were the important events of the war? • Broad: • to what extent was there an american identity by the time of the revolution? • how revolutionary was the american revolution?
Revolutions: conservative and radical Conservative: revolutionary leaders step into shoes of old leaders Meet the new boss, same as the old boss! Radical: total change in political / social structure –ex: sans-culottism
Long- Range Causes 1. EMERGING AMERICAN IDENTITY (EVOLVING SINCE MID-17TH C!) • Hector St-Jean CrÈvecoeur’s Letters from an American Farmer(PHD 4-9): “What is this American, this new man?”
2. Enlightenment Ideals • DEISM AND NATURAL LAW (BASED ON NEWTONIAN PHYSICS: • MAKER OF UNIVERSE = “MASTER MECHANIC” WHO ESTABLISHED NATURAL LAWS TO RUN IT AND LEFT IT ALONE AFTER THAT OUR “FOUNDING FATHERS” WERE DEISTS, NOT CHRISTIANS!
LOCKE’S CONCEPT OF NATURAL LAW RIGHTS AND THE SOCIAL CONTRACT • IN HIS SECOND TREATISE ON GOVERNMENT LOCKE ARGUED: • HUMANS HAVE NATURAL RIGHTS TO LIFE, LIBERTY AND PROPERTY • 2) TO PROTECT THOSE RIGHTS, PEOPLE ENTER INTO SOCIAL CONTRACT AND ESTABLISH GOVERNMENT • 3) IF GOVERNMENT TAKES AWAY THOSE RIGHTS, PEOPLE HAVE THE RIGHT TO REVOLUTION • “
3. RESENTMENT OF BRITAIN • FRENCH & INDIAN WAR/ PROCLAMATION OF 1763 • END OF SALUTARY NEGLECT – INTERFERENCE IN COLONIAL AFFAIRS • TAXATION!
“THE RIGHTS OF ENGLISHMEN”: • NO TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION • RIGHT TO ELECTED REPRESENTATIVES • RIGHT TO TRIALS BY JURY IN COMMON LAW COURTS, RIGHT OF HABEAS CORPUS • RIGHT TO KEEP AND BEAR ARMS
4. BRITAIN’S TAX LAWS PROTESTS AGAINST BRITAIN • Sugar Act (1764) • Stamp Act (1765) • Townshend Duties (1767) • Tea Act (1772) N.B. TAXES HAD TO BE PAID IN SPECIE!
Colonial Reaction TO TAX LAWS • Resistance to British authority • Boycotts • CONGRESSES, Petitions to Parliament and the Crown • Riots and the Threat of Violence
SUGAR ACT (1764) • FIRST EXPLICIT TAX LAW • REDUCED DUTY ON SUGAR IMPORTED FROM NON-BRITISH COLONIES • PROVIDED FOR TRIALS OF VIOLATORS IN ADMIRALTY COURT (NO JURY) • AUTHORIZED COURTS TO ISSUE WRITS OF ASSISTANCE (SEARCH WARRANTS) JAMES OTIS – WEALTHY LAWYER/ POLITICIAN ARGUED V. WRITS/ STAMP ACT CONGRESS/ AUTHOR REVOLUTIONARY PAMPHLETS
“Father of the Revolution” POLITICIAN – REPRESENTED BOSTON IN ASSEMBLY! SUGAR ACT HURT ONLY N.E. DISTILLERS/ SMUGGLERS BUT ADAMS ARGUED AGAINST IT AS “TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION” 1772 PORTRAIT BY JOHN SINGLETON COPLEY
Stamp Act (1765) STAMP REQUIRED ON ALL DOCUMENTS – AFFECTED CITY PEOPLE MORE THAN OTHERS (ESP. PEOPLE ON FRONTIER!) ABOVE – ACTUAL STAMPS, AND VERSION IN COLONIAL POLITICAL CARTOON
COLONIAL REACTION TO STAMP ACT • NON-IMPORTATION AGREEMENTS = Boycotts OF BRITISH GOODS • VIOLENT Protests - (SONS OF LIBERTY) – EXAMPLE = MOB BROKE INTO, VANDALIZED OF MASSACHUSETTS GOVERNOR HUTCHINSON • DID SAM ADAMS STIR UP THE MOB? SOMEONE DID! • NON-VIOLENT PROTEST – STAMP ACT CONGRESS = major step union
Resolutions of the Stamp Act Congress (1765) • 1st. That His Majesty's subjects in these colonies owe the same allegiance to the crown of Great Britain that is owing from his subjects born within the realm, and all due subordination to that august body, the Parliament of Great Britain. • 2d. That His Majesty's liege subjects in these colonies are entitled to all the inherent rights and privileges of his natural born subjects within the kingdom of Great Britain. • 3d. That it is inseparably essential to the freedom of a people, and the undoubted rights of Englishmen, that no taxes should be imposed on them, but with their own consent, given personally, or by their representatives.
Repeal and Declaratory Act (1766) “Parliament assembled, had, hath, and of right ought to have, full power and authority to make laws and statutes of sufficient force and validity to bind the colonies and people of America, subjects of the crown of Great Britain, in all cases whatsoever.”
Townshend Revenue Acts (1767) • IMPOSED IMPORT DUTIES ON LEAD, PAINT, GLASS, PAPER AND TEA (BRITISH GOODS – PURE TAX!) • THIS HURT EVERYONE SOME – BUT MOSTLY PEOPLE WHO COULD AFFORD THOSE THINGS! CHARLES “CHAMPAGNE CHARLIE” TOWNSHEND, CHANCELLOR OF EXCHEQUER – THOUGHT COLONISTS WOULD ACCEPT “INDIRECT TAX”
JOHN DICKINSON – IN HIS LETTERS FROM A PENNSYLVANIA FARMER (PHD 4-5) HE ARGUED THAT TOWNSHEND ACTS WERE “UNCONSTITUTIONAL” AND CALLED FOR NON-IMPORTATION AGREEMENTS HE WAS ONE OF THE WEALTHIEST MEN IN THE COLONIES AND A POLITICIAN
“The Bostonians Paying the Excise Man” BRITISH POLITICAL CARTOON DEPICTS SONS OF LIBERTY TARRING AND FEATHERING OF TAX COLLECTOR – ACTUAL EVENT
Boston Massacre (March 5,1770) BOSTON MOB STARTED IT 5 COLONISTS KILLED, INCLUDING RUNAWAY SLAVE CRISPUS ATTUCKS SAM ADAMS NAMED IT “BOSTON MASSACRE” CAUSE CÉLÉBRE THROUGHOUT COLONIES
COMPARE PAUL REVERE’S DRAWIMG OF “BOSTON MASSACRE (TOP) WITH 1856 DEPICTION. WHAT’S DIFFERENT? WHY?
LAWYER JOHN ADAMS, LEADING PATRIOT, DEFENDED THE BRITISH SOLDIERS WHO SHOT COLONISTS AT “BOSTON MASSACRE” AND GOT THEM OFF! HE BECAME AMBASSADOR, VICE PRESIDENT AND PRESIDENT OF U.S.
The GaspéeIncident (1772) RHODE ISLAND COLONISTS SACKED AND BURNED BRITISH REVENUE FRIGATE THAT RAN AGROUND NEAR PROVIDENCE
Committees of Correspondence • SAM ADAMS’S IDEA • PURPOSE = WARN NEIGHBORING COLONIES ABOUT INCIDENTS WITH BRITISH • BY 1773, EVERY COLONY HAD ONE AS PART OF COLONIAL LEGISLATURE • STEP TO UNION – AND SEDITIOUS!
Tea Act (1773) • REDUCED TAX ON BRITISH EAST INDIA COMPANY TEA • MEAN CHEAPER TEA FOR COLONISTS • HURT N.E. TEA MERCHANTS WHO SOLD DUTCH TEA
Boston Tea Party (1774) SONS OF LIBERTY DUMPED 342 TONS OF TEA INTO BOSTON HARBOR
The Coercive or REPRESSIVE or IntolerableActs (1774) BOSTON PORT ACT MASSACHUSETTS GOVERNMENT ACT ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE ACT QUEBEC ACT Lord North
Quebec Act (1774) MADE LAND SPECULATORS UNHAPPY COLONISTS FEARED BRITAIN WAS TRYING TO RECRUIT FRENCH CANADIANS TO FIGHT ON ITS SIDE IF WAR OCCURRED
First Continental Congress (1774) • 55 delegates from 12 colonies (ALL BUT GEORGIA) • UNICAMERAL • 1 VOTE/ COLONY Agenda How to respond to the Coercive Acts & the Quebec Act? . CONGRESS DOESN’T GET TO DECIDE! CARPENTERS’ HALL, PHILADELPHIA, WHERE CONGRESS MET
THE WAR BEGINS • BATTLES OF LEXINGTON AND CONCORD, APRIL 19, 1775 • 700 BRITISH REGULARS SET OUT FROM BOSTON TO TAKE ARSENAL OF COLONIAL MILITIA AT CONCORD • COLONISTS KNEW IT WOULD HAPPEN ADVANCE – JOHN ADAMS, JOHN HANCOCK, PAUL REVERE, ET AL. WERE IN CONCORD THE WEEK BEFORE – BUT THEY DIDN’T KNOW WHEN BRITISH WOULD ATTACK
“The British Are Coming” “Listen, my children, and you shall hear, Of the midnight ride of Paul Revere. . .” (Henry Wadsworth Longfellow) (1861) BUT REVERE WAS CAPTURED EN ROUTE! WILLIAM DAWES WARNED THE MILITIAMEN!
77 MILITIAMEN MET REDCOATS AT LEXINGTON, 8 KILLED, FELL BACK TOWARD BOSTON • AT CONCORD, 250 MILITIAMEN TURNED BACK 3 COMPANIES OF REDCOATS AT OLD NORTH BRIDGE
ACCORDING TO RALPH WALDO EMERSON IN “CONCORD HYMN”: “BY THE RUDE BRIDGE THAT ARCHED THE FLOOD THEIR FLAGS TO APRIL’S BREEZE UNFURLED, HERE ONCE THE EMBATTLED FARMERS STOOD AND FIRED THE SHOT HEARD ‘ROUND THE WORLD.”
AFTER COLONIAL VICTORY AT CONCORD, • MILITIAMEN (JOINED BY ABOUT 3,500 MORE) CHASE SURVIVING REDCOATS BACK TO BOSTON AND LAY SEIGE TO THE CITY! • SEIGE LASTS 11 MONTHS . . .
MEANWHILE, THE SECOND CONTINENTAL CONGRESS CONVENED, MAY 1775 – IMMEDIATELY DUBBED MILITIA THE “CONTINENTAL ARMY” AND APPOINTED GEORGE WASHINGTON GENERAL C-IN-C • JULY 8, 1775 CONGRESS ADOPTED • THE OLIVE BRANCH PETITION: "...the apprehensions which now oppress our hearts with unspeakable grief, being once removed, your Majesty will find your faithful subjects on this continent ready and willing at all times...to assert and maintain the rights and interests of your Majesty and of our Mother Country."
The debate over independence thomas Paine, Common Sense IN THE EARLIEST ESSAYS IN THE AMERICAN CRISIS, PAINE ARGUED FOR INDEPENDENCE. HE CONTINUED TO PUBLISH THROUGHOUT THE WAR IN SUPPORT OF THE REVOLUTION
JULY 4, 1776, CONGRESS ADOPTS THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE – FINALLY!
BEN FRANKLIN, JOHN ADAMS AND THOMAS JEFFERSON WORKING ON THE DECLARATION – JEFFERSON WAS THE MAIN AUTHOR
PREAMBLE TO DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. That to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed. That whenever any form of government becomes destructive to these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and happiness. Whose ideas are these?
the declaration continues with a list of complaints against king george iii, including • he taxed colonists without representation • he quartered soldiers in colonists’ homes • he dissolved colonial legislatures • he turned “the merciless Indian Savages” against colonists on the frontiers • Read the declaration!
UNDER THE ENGLISH BILL OF RIGHTS (1689), THE KING WAS A FIGUREHEAD • PARLIAMENT IS SOVEREIGN AND THE CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER IS THE PRIME MINISTER GEORGE III • WHY DID THE AUTHORS OF THE DECLARATION BLAME EVERYTHING ON THE KING?
ABIGAIL ADAMS: • SHE WROTE TO HER HUSBAND JOHN WHEN HE WAS WORKING ON THE DECLARATION, “REMEMBER THE LADIES.” • HE WROTE BACK SAYING MEN WOULD NOT BE RULED BY “THE DESPOTISM OF THE PETTICOAT.” • SHE WROTE BACK TO HIM, “REMEMBER THAT ARBITRARY POWER IS LIKE MOST OTHER THINGS THAT ARE VERY HARD, LIABLE TO BE BROKEN.” • (PHD 5-5)
THE WAR: • 1775 – 1781 (THE FIGHTING) • 1775 – 1783 (FROM START TO TREATY OF PARIS) • BATTLES TO KNOW: • LEXINGTON AND CONCORD, APRIL 19, 1775 • FORT TICONDEROGA, MAY 10, 1775 • SEIGE OF BOSTON APRIL 19, 1775 – MARCH 17, 1776 -- INCLUDES BUNKER HILL, JUNE 17, 1775 • NEW YORK/ NEW JERSEY, AUGUST – OCTOBER 1776 • TRENTON, DECEMBER 26, 1776 • SARATOGA, JUNE – OCTOBER 1777 • YORKTOWN, OCTOBER 19, 1781