Each of you needs1 of each of the following colors: Red Orange Blue Green Purple Pink Brown
2/06 Periodic table organization • IQ: What are some ways for organizing information in Science? Why do we organize information?
The Elements Song • Tom Lehrer's "The Elements". A Flash animation by Mike Stanfill, Private Hand
Number the columns 1 thru 18. Label them as Groups • Use Roman numerals I thru VIII to show the families. • Number the Rows 1 thru 7. Label them as periods.
Hydrogen • Part of Family#1 • Also a nonmetal • Also a gas • Color it GRAY By weight, 75% of the visible universe is hydrogen, a colorless gas. In space, vast quantities interact with starlight to create spectacular sights such as the Eagle Nebula (seen by the Hubble Space Telescope).
Alkali Metals • Group 1 or Family I • Color them RED
Alkaline Earth Metals • Group #2 or Family II • Color them ORANGE
Transition Metals • Groups #3-12 • Color them Yellow or Brown
Metalloids Color them BLUE
Other Metals • Left of the staircase • Color them GREEN
Nonmetals • To the right of the staircase • Color them PURPLE
Noble Gases • Group 18 or Family #8 • Color them PINK
Halogens Group 17 Family VIII
Iron, Cobalt, Nickel • First elements in groups 8,9, 10 called the iron triad. • The only ones known to create a magnetic field. • Put a box around Fe, Co, Ni
Modern Periodic Table Periodic – means regular, repeated pattern.
2/21 p. 28 Periodic Table Trends Notes IQ: On the PT, most elements are non-metals, on left hand side metals, on right hand side non-metals on right hand side metals on left hand side.
P. 5 and 6 -Complete yellow Birdley Background: Mendeleev’s table and paste onto p. 29 - Complete fill in the blanks portion of blue packet and turn in.
What is the Periodic Table? • A way of organizing & classifying elements • Arranged in rows called periods and columns called groups or families.
History of the Periodic Table • 1860’s a Russian Scientist named Dmitri Mendeleev • discovered a system for organizing all of the known elements. • To help him find a pattern he put all of the known information on individual cards. • He listed the elements’ known properties.
Mendeleev’s Periodic Table • Patterns appeared when elements were arranged in order of increasing atomic mass. • However, this did not always produce similar groups. So he moved the cards into the group it best fit. • This left blank spaces on the table. Mendeleev
Mendeleev’s Periodic Table • Mendeleev predicted that the blank spaces would be filled by elements that had not yet been discovered. • He even predicted the properties of new elements. • Published his table in 1869; the newelements were discovered within 16 years.
Organization of the Table • Elements are now arranged by increasing atomic number • An element’s properties can be predicted from its location on the table. • Across a row or down a column the elements’ properties change in a predictable way.
Why it works • The table works because it is based on the structure of atoms, especially the valence e-s (outermost shell). • Atomic # increases by 1, so it has 1 more valence electron than the previous family. • Atomic # increasing by 1 means it has one more proton than the previous atom.
OQ: • Find the at. # and the mass #of Phosphorus. For P, p+= e- = n0=
Modern Periodic Table Periodic – means regular, repeated pattern.
Reading the Periodic Table • - atomic number (p’s & e-s • - element’s symbol • -element’s name • Atomic mass (round off for mass # p’s + n’s) • Mass # of Fe= ? 26 Fe Iron 55.847
What’s the difference between Mass # & atomic #? • Atomic # is equal to the number of protons or electrons (unless charged) • Mass # is the # of protons PLUS the # of neutrons (each equals 1 AMU)
Drawing an atom • Draw atomic structure of H & He as a class. • Draw atomic structure O on your own. • Determine valence e-s for each one. • Building an atom
Groups: Columns • The vertical (up and down) columns of the periodic table (there are 18) are called groups (18)or families(I- VIII) • Metallic character increases from top to bottom. • Elementsin the same group or familyhave similar characteristics or properties.Ex. Sodium (Na) has properties similar to Lithium (Li). Ex. Li, Na, and K have similar properties, all in 1 group.
Periods: Rows • The horizontal rows of the periodic table are called periods (from repeating pattern). • Elements in a period are not alike in properties. • 3 repeated PATTERNS left to right: • 1. METAL TO NONMETAL • 2. REACTIVE TO NONREACTIVE • 3. Val. E-s go up. • Write the val e-s for families I thru VIII on your PT • Draw the number of shells for Periods 1 thru 7 on your PT
Rows (cont’d) • Atomic # (# of protons) from L to R across a period. & • Atomic mass (# of protons & neutrons) increases from left to right across a period.
OQ: p. 16 Locate the element Chlorine on your PT. Decide which 2 elements will have properties similar to those of Cl. • S and Ar • Br and I • Br and F • O and F PT Videos
2/28 p. 24 Periodic table trends Notes • IQ: Circle the element Ca on your PT. Determine which 2 elements will have properties most similar to Ca.
Rows & Columns CombinedOVERALL (back of PT) • Metals are on the left. • Non-metals are on the right. • Metalloids are in between metals & non-metals, on the “zig-zag.” • Brainpop
Summary of Properties of Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids Notebook p. * Metalloids are combined properties of both metals and nonmetals.
Each color represents a different group, or family.
Some properties of metals to look at (in notebook) • Malleability- Ability to be flattened into thin sheets. Ex. Aluminum • Ductility- Ability to be drawn into wires. Ex. Copper. • Heat and electrical conductivity- Ability to allow heat and electricity to pass through. Ex. Copper (p. 306)
Bonding • The number of outer or “valence” e-s in an atom affects the way an atom bonds. • The ‘magic #’ is 8…e- want to have 8 friends total! Makes a complete outer shell. • Noble gases have a complete outer shell so they don’t bond with anything. • The way an atom bonds determines many properties of the element. • Group 1 elements will readily bond with Group 17 elements to form salts. Can you tell why? • Two types of bonds: • Covalent bond: Val. e-s shared, non metals only • Ionic: Val. e-s gained or lost, metals & non-metals
OQ: Name 2 elements that could hook up together to form a new substance. Explain why you picked them.
3/4 p. Periodic Table Trends (cont’d) • IQ: Magnesium (Mg) is in family II. Which of the following elements would 1 atom of Mg be able to bond with easily? • a. Sodium (Na) • b. Calcium (Ca) • c. Neon (Ne) • d. Oxygen (O)
ALKALI METALS • Group 1/Family I • very reactive metals that do not occur freely in nature • Have 1 val. e- • malleable, ductile, good conductors of heat and electricity. • Low density (ex. potassium 0.9 g/cm3), low melting and boiling pts.
softer than most other metals, shiny and white • explode if they are exposed to water