Positive Behavior Interventions & Support: BOOSTER TRAINING July 19, 2010 SD PBIS Trainers: Ruth Fodness – firstname.lastname@example.org Kari Oyen – email@example.com Pat Hubert – firstname.lastname@example.org Jody Jackson – email@example.com State of South Dakota Special Education Programs
Objectives • Review data and progress with PBIS within the school setting • Share portfolios with other schools • Discuss ways to incorporate ideas within your own school setting • Discussion of students in need of intensive behavioral interventions
Data Review • Review your system of implementation • What is working? What needs improvement? • Review data • Where are problematic behaviors occuring? What types of preventative measures can be made to alleviate these problematic behaviors? • Action Plan • Determine who, what, when, where, and how these ideas can be implemented
Portfolio • Share Portfolios with other schools! • Action plan how you can incorporate ideas into your school setting.
Why aren’t traditional disciplinary methods working for some students?
Using Competing Pathways • Diagramming Functional Behavioral Analysis • Based on the work of Diana Browning Wright • Adapted with permission from Nishioka and Sprague • Defines alternatives or competing behaviors and the contingencies associated with them • Select intervention procedures that will make the problem behavior irrelevant, inefficient, and ineffective Diana Browning Wright, 2010
Applied Behavior Analysis Principles • Behavior is shaped by experiences • Learned • Functional relationship between behavior and environmental events • Antecedent events • Behavior • Consequence events Diana Browning Wright, 2010
Guiding Behavioral Principles • Human behavior is lawful • Human behavior is important, understandable, & predictable • Human behavior is learned • Human behavior is malleable and teachable • Behavior does not occur in a vacuum…it is affected directly by environmental events Diana Browning Wright, 2010
Diagram Functional Assessment Summary Statement Scenario: When the teacher and/or peers ask Michael to do something he doesn’t like, he begins to swear and hits to avoid the task. This behavior is more likely if he has had a conflict with a peer. Diana Browning Wright, 2010
Testable Hypothesis Diagram Scenario: When the teacher and/or peers ask Michael to do something he doesn’t like, he begins to swear and hits to avoid the task. This behavior is more likely if he has had a conflict with a peer. Setting EventAntecedentProblem BehaviorConsequence Peer conflict Teacher/peer Swearing & hitting Avoid requests request or tasks Diana Browning Wright, 2010
Fundamental Rule You should not propose to reduce a problem behavior without identifying the alternative, desired behaviors the person should perform instead of the problem behavior (O’Neill, pg. 71) Diana Browning Wright, 2010
Define Alternative Behaviors • Must meet same function as problem behavior • Be in the individual’s repertoire or easily taught, and represent the beginning point for teaching desired behavior • Have a good contextual fit with the setting and situation • Must be able to do it as easily as problem behavior Diana Browning Wright, 2010
Reinforcement Wisdom! • “Knowing” or saying “know” does NOT mean “will do” • Students “do more” when “doing works”…appropriate & inappropriate! • Natural consequences are varied, unpredictable, undependable,…not always preventive
Defining guidelines • Design antecedent strategies to make triggering antecedents ineffective. • So they no longer serve as triggers • Design behavior teaching strategies to make problem behaviors inefficient. • So more acceptable behaviors are easier to do. Diana Browning Wright, 2010
Defining guidelines • Design consequence strategies to make maintaining consequences irrelevant. • So they no longer are present or • Are less reinforcing • Design setting event strategies to eliminate ore neutralize effects of setting events. • So they have less impact on routines and reinforcers Diana Browning Wright, 2010
A context for Behavior Intervention Plans • Behavior support is the redesign of environments, no the redesign of individuals • Creating Pathways give a context to incorporate into a behavioral intervention plan. Diana Browning Wright, 2010
Behavior Support Plans • “A Behavior Support Plan is the specification of what the adults will do to address challenging behavior impeding the learning of a student or his/her peers.” Three key points will be addressed in a team-developed behavior support plan: • Understanding how this behavior is related to the context in which it • occurs • Understanding how this behavior serves a purpose or function for the student: how something is either gained, or something is avoided or protested with this behavior • Taking this analysis and specifying in this behavior plan how we will seek to teach a new behavior that serves the same purpose or function—but one we can accept; AND specifying how this behavior plan will seek to remove, alter or add variables that remove the need for this student to use challenging problem behavior” Diana Browning Wright PENT Director Behavior Analyst/School Psychologist/Teacher
Behavior Support Team Who Should Be on a Behavior Support Team? The members of the Behavior Support Team will depend upon the specific needs of the student in question. In some cases the team may consist of regular education teachers, an administrator and a counselor. In other cases the Student Study Team, 504 team or IEP team may form the Behavior Support Team.
Successful Behavior Plan Phases Addressing the Problem Behavior • Teacher/staff member makes personal contact with parent/guardian to establish a working relationship, discuss concerns and brainstorm possible solutions • Classroom interventions are implemented and data collection on outcomes begins • If classroom interventions are unsuccessful, teacher informs other professionals that student exhibits behavior that is interfering with the learning of student and/or peers
Successful Behavior Plan Phases Understanding the Problem Behavior • Teacher may consult with other professionals (counselor, administrator, school psychologist, program specialist, language/speech specialist, nurse, etc) to understand the cause of the misbehavior and brainstorm solutions • Teacher collected data is evaluated: checklists, observations, event records
Successful Behavior Plan Phases Developing a Behavior Support Plan • The Behavior Support Plan Team meets to formally discuss & strategize on: • 1) contributing environmental factors, • 2) functional factors (why the student is misbehaving) • (If the student has an IEP, this is an IEP team function.) • A formal plan of action, the BSP, is developed with behavior goals. • Roles/responsibilities are assigned. Many people can be designated on the BSP. • A system of communication between the involved parties is formalized.
Successful Behavior Plan Phases Implementing the Behavior Support Plan • The environment &/or curriculum is changed to support both functionally equivalent replacement behavior (FERB) AND general positive behaviors • New appropriate behaviors and FERB is taught & reinforced • Goal(s) acquisition is continuously monitored as specified • Four reactive strategy phases are outlined & followed • The communication plan to progress monitor the interventions is followed
Successful Behavior Plan Phases Monitoring/Evaluating the Plan • Team members monitor the success of plan & document progress • Team re-convenes to review progress • If unsuccessful, team plans next steps • Revise, redo, assess, etc
Behavioral Interventions • Prevention • Emphasis on teaching • Environmental redesign • Antecedent manipulations • Function-based support • Comprehensive interventions • Systems change Diana Browning Wright, 2010
“Stay Close” You create a safe, positive environment and establish yourself as a source of caring, empathy, and reinforcement. Tools for Positive Behavioral Change Glenn Latham, 2008
Staying close Means…. Does not mean…. Lecturing. Setting the record straight. Moralizing. Being judgmental. Problem solving. • Showing you care. • Being attentive. • Listening. • “Just” talking. • Matching emotions. • Being near. • Touching. Tools for Positive Behavioral Change Glenn Latham, 2008
When to Stay Close • Routine times during the day. • Meal times, car rides. • Brief moments between other things. • Between school and an appointment, after the soccer game, before washing up for dinner. • Special times you are spending just with them. • Spending the day together shopping, fishing, or just talking. • When you are upset with them or someone else; after you have calmed down. Tools for Positive Behavioral Change Glenn Latham, 2008
How to “Stay Close” 1. Get physically close. 2. Touch appropriately. 3. Match facial expressions. 4. Use the appropriate tone of voice. 5. Use relaxed body language. 6. Ask open-ended, positive questions. 7. Listen while the child speaks. 8. Use empathy statements. 9. Avoid reacting to junk behavior. 10. Stay cool throughout the process (No coercives). “Tools for Positive Behavioral Change” Glenn Latham, 2008
CLASSWIDE SYSTEMS TO CUE, SHAPE AND MODEL BEHAVIOR:STRATEGIES FOR TEACHERS • See Handouts • Rainbow Club • “Slot Machine” Game • Golden Nugget Club • Team Basketball Competition Diana Browning Wright, 2010
Time AwayA procedure to keep task-avoiding students under instructional control Time out vs. Time Away The student exercises the option to leave a learning task which has become aversive to him/her Student moves to a location in the environment designated for this purpose and remains there until he/she is ready to cope with the demands of the learning environment The student returns to the learning location by initiation, not by teacher signaling return • Access to reinforcement is removed or reduced for a specific time period contingent on a response • Often used as punishment for misbehavior • Teacher tells the student when to leave and when to return, often with lengthy removals being the norm Diana Browning Wright, 2001
Time Away Systems • The Beach • Australia • The Think Tank • Dinosaur Time
Check-in Check-out Student meets with a staff person to review target behavior and receive encouragement and self monitoring data sheet in a.m., and reviews results in p.m.)
Setting Expectations You let the child know what behavior is expected and what the consequences are for meeting and not meeting the expectation.
Steps to Setting Expectations • 3. Set a Positive Tone • Think about it first: • This is more than just being cheerful when talking to the child. • A positive tone also means making POSITIVE STATEMENTS about APPROPRIATE BEHAVIOR. • Praise the child for doing the expected behavior in the past. Say something like, “I really liked it when you washed and dried all of the dishes right after dinner • on Thursday night.” • If the expected behavior has never happened, think of • something similar. • 1. Pick a Time • Plan the Time • You are both calm. • Away from the behavior. • Convenient for both of you. • Adequate length of time. • 2. Pick a Place • Plan the Place • That is quiet. • Where you will not be interrupted. • That is neutral. Tools for Positive Behavioral Change Glenn Latham, 2008
Steps to Setting Expectations • 4. State the Expectation • Tell the child clearly what specific • appropriate behavior you expect. • Say in a calm manner, “ I expect you to ________”, or “I want you to __________.” • 6. Benefits to the Child • Be prepared to briefly explain to the child why it is good for them to do this behavior (health, safety and well-being). • This motivates the child to listen in what might be a difficult situation. • 5. Briefly Reflect the • Child’s Feelings (Empathy) • If there is a negative response or protest, acknowledge it briefly with an empathy statement. • Say something like, “It seems like you are frustrated by this.” • Do this only one time.
Steps to Setting Expectations • 7. Clearly State • the Consequences . . . • Consequences should be: • Positive (giving instead of taking away, not a threat) • Reasonable, controllable, and non-punishing to you • Appropriate to the situation, as possible • If the expectation is not met, the child • does not earn the positive consequence. • 8. Negotiate as Necessary • Remember, past behavior is the best predictor of future behavior. • If the child has been responsible in the past, then maybe you can negotiate the terms. • If the child usually does things other than what you want, then wait to negotiate until after the child has been doing the behavior you want for a period of time.
Steps to Setting Expectations • 11. Avoid Reacting to • Junk Behavior • Avoid using coercives such as arguing, • lecturing, or being sarcastic. • Return to the expectation. • 9. Ask the Child to Restate the • Behavior and Consequences • Have the child tell you the whole plan. • Remember: They are not earning the positive consequence by not doing the expected behavior. You are not taking it away. • 12. Stay Cool! • Use empathy and understanding, butkeepcool and stay on course. (No coercives!) • If the child protests more than three times, terminate the discussion. • Try again later, when emotions are calm. • 10. Acknowledge and Praise the • Child’s Restatement • Praise this even if they tell you with an “attitude,” grudgingly, or sullenly.
Behavioral Contract You make a written agreement with the child that identifies the expectations and consequences for meeting and not meeting the expectations.
When to use a behavioral contract When Setting Expectations is not enough: • The child’s behavior continues to be inconsistent after you Set Expectations. • The child needs more structure. • When the child has a history of compliance with contracts. • When you want the behaviors to be done more independently.