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Artificial System of Plant Classification

Artificial System of Plant Classification

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Artificial System of Plant Classification

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  1. Carl Linnaeus Born in Sweden (1707-1778) Father of Taxonomy Artificial System of Plant Classification

  2. “The flowers' leaves. . . serve as bridal beds which the Creator has so gloriously arranged, adorned with such noble bed curtains, and perfumed with so many soft scents that the bridegroom with his bride might there celebrate their nuptials with so much the greater solemnity. . . “ Taxonomy based on reproductive organs. Class determined by Stamen Order by Pistils Problems Controversial Taxonomy

  3. Before Linnaeus • Naming practices varied For instance, the common wild briar rose: Rosa sylvestris inodora seu canina and Rosa sylvestris alba cum rubore, folio glabro

  4. Artificial vs. Natural • Artificial taxonomy was a system of grouping unrelated plant species by a common criteria (i.e. a flowers sexual organs) • Natural classification reflects evolutionary relationships…

  5. Artificial System of Plant Classification Carl Linnaeus

  6. Carl Linnaeus • Born May 22, 1707 in Råshult, Sweden. • Father was botanist/naturalist • Attended Univ. of Lund and Univ. of Uppsala • Traveled to Lapland (Blue Lake, CA) and collected 537 plant specimens • Married Sara Moraea in 1739 • Opened own medical practice specializing in venereal diseases • Became professor at Uppsala • Produced his sexual system of classification (Artificial classification) • Invented binomial nomenclature

  7. What is Artificial Plant Classification • Method of classifying plants based on a limited number of their physical and sexual characteristics

  8. Basics • ‘Sexual’ system • Divided plants into 24 classes • Classes based largely on the amount, union and length of stamens

  9. Linnaeus' classification system for plants (I) Public Marriages (Flowers visible to everyone) • Monoclinous (Husband and wife have the same bed) [Hermaphrodite flowers: stamens and pistils in the same flower] • Without Affinity (Husbands not related to each other) [stamens not united by any of their parts] • Without Subordination (All the males of equal rank) [stamens not in set proportion] • Monandria - One husband in marriage • Diandria - Two husbands in the same marriage • Triandria - Three husbands in the same marriage • Tetrandria - Four husbands in the same marriage • Pentandria - Five husbands in the same marriage • Hexandria - Six husbands in the same marriage • Heptandria - Seven husbands in the same marriage • Octandria - Eight husbands in the same marriage • Enneandria - Nine husbands in the same marriage • Decandria - Ten husbands in the same marriage • Dodecandria - Twelve to nineteen husbands in the same marriage • Icosandria - Generally twenty husbands, often more • Polyandria - Twenty males or more in the same marriage • With Subordination (Some males above the others) [Two stamens always shorter] • Didynamia - Four husbands, two taller than the other two • Tetradynamia - More than four husbands, two shorter than the others • With Affinity (Husbands related to each other) [stamens united with each other or with the pistil] • Monadelphia - Husbands, like brothers, arise from one base • Diadelphia - Husbands arise from two bases, as if from two mothers • Polyadelphia - Husbands arise from more than two mothers • Syngenesia - Husbands joined together at the top • Gynandria - Husbands and wives growing together • Diclinous (Husband and wife have separate beds) [separate male and female flowers of the same species] • Monoecia - Husbands live with their wives in the same house, but have different beds • Dioecia - Husbands and wives have different houses • Polygamia - Husbands live with wives and concubines • (II) Clandestine Marriages (Flowers scarcely visible to the naked eye) • Cryptogamia - Nuptials are celebrated privately