Brain Stem I - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

brain stem i n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Brain Stem I PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Brain Stem I

play fullscreen
1 / 58
Download Presentation
Brain Stem I
269 Views
jude
Download Presentation

Brain Stem I

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Brain Stem I Basic Neuroscience James H. Baños, Ph.D.

  2. Overview • Major external features • Transverse sections • Pathways: The big Four • Neurotransmitter nuclei

  3. Major Brain Stem Activities • Conduit • Ascending and descending pathways • Integrative functions • Complex motor patterns • Respiratory and cardiovascular activity • Regulation of arousal and level of consciousness • Cranial Nerve functions

  4. Major External Features

  5. Midbrain Pons Medulla Brain Stem

  6. Midbrain • Cerebral Peduncles • Interpeduncular cistern • Origin of CN III -- Oculomotor Nerve • Corpora Quadrigemina • Superior Colliculi • Inferior Colliculi

  7. Midbrain Corpora quadrigemina CN III Cerebral peduncles Interpeduncular cistern

  8. Pons • Cerebellar Peduncles • Superior (Dives under the colliculi) • Middle (Bridge of the pons) • Inferior (inferior/medial to middle) • Floor of the 4th Ventricle

  9. Pons

  10. Pons Middle cerebellar peduncle

  11. Pons Superior cerebellar peduncles Middle cerebellar peduncle Inferior cerebellar peduncles

  12. Pons • 4th Ventricle • Inflow from aqueduct of Sylvius • Sulcus limitans

  13. Medulla • Pyramids • Pyramidal decussation • Inferior olive • Obex (inferiormost point of the 4th ventricle)

  14. Medulla Obex Pyramids Inferior olive

  15. Medulla Inferior Olive Pyramids

  16. Transverse Sections

  17. Transverse Sections • But first…a word about orientation… Anatomical Clinical

  18. Midbrain • Cerebral peduncles • Substantia nigra • Red nucleus

  19. Midbrain Myelin Stained Cerebral peduncles

  20. Midbrain Substantia nigra

  21. Midbrain Red Nucleus

  22. Midbrain Colliculi

  23. Midbrain Substantia nigra

  24. Midbrain Red nucles Substantia nigra

  25. Pons • 4th ventricle • Pontine nuclei • Locus ceruleus

  26. Pons Pontine nuclei 4th vent Locus ceruleus

  27. Pons Locus ceruleus

  28. Pons • 4th ventricle • Pontine nuclei • Locus ceruleus

  29. Pons 4th ventricle Sulcus Limitans Middle cerebellar peduncle

  30. Pons

  31. Rostral Medulla • Pyramids • Inferior Olive

  32. Rostral Medulla Pyramids Inferior olive

  33. Caudal Medulla • Sensory nuclei • Nucleus Gracilis • Nuclues Cuneatus • Pyramidal decussation

  34. Caudal Medulla Nucleus cuneatus Nucleus gracilis

  35. Tectum and Tegmentum

  36. Tectum and Tegmentum • Tectum • Area posterior to the ventricular space • Only prominent in the midbrain • Superior and inferior colliculi (“tectal plate”)

  37. Tectum and Tegmentum Tectal Plate

  38. Tectum and Tegmentum • Tegmentum • Area anterior to the ventricular space (but not everything anterior) • This is the embryologically oldest areas of the brainstem • Area anterior to the tegmentum “added on” during development

  39. Big Four Pathways

  40. Remember the Big Four? Corticospinal tract Dorsal Columns Spinothalamic tract Spinocerebellar tracts

  41. Big Four Pathways • Corticospinal tract • Descending motor • Spinothalamic tract • Ascending pain/temperature • Dorsal columns/Medial lemniscus • Ascending somatosensory and conscious proprioception • Spinocerebellar tracts • Ascending unconscious proprioception

  42. The Big Four -- Caudal Medulla Lateral Cuneate Nucleus Corticospinal tract Medial Lemniscus Spinothalamic tract Spinocerebellar tracts

  43. The Big Four -- Rostral Medulla Corticospinal tract Medial Lemniscus Spinothalamic tract Spinocerebellar tracts

  44. The Big Four…err…three -- Pons Corticospinal tract Medial Lemniscus Spinothalamic tract

  45. The Big Three -- Midbrain Corticospinal tract Medial Lemniscus Spinothalamic tract

  46. Brain Stem Nuclei

  47. Brain Stem Nuclei • Major neurotransmitter nuclei • Reticular formation (not really a “nucleus” but acts like a group of nuclei) • Nuclei associated with cranial nerves

  48. Raphe Nuclei • Ridge of cells along the midline in the center of the brainstem • Multiple nuclei • Caudal • projections to the spinal cord and other parts of the brainstem • Rostral • projections to multiple cortical areas

  49. Raphe Nuclei • Major serotonin nuclei • Technically part of the reticular formation • Complex reciprocal relationships with multiple areas • Ascending pathways involved in many neurobehavioral phenomena • Mood • Sleep • Feeding/satiety • Descending pathways modulate spinal cord function • Pain

  50. Locus Ceruleus • Major norepinephrine nucleus • Dorsal wall of the rostral pons • Projects to • Spinal cord • Brain Stem • Cortex