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Identifying Rocks

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  1. Identifying Rocks Sedimentary rocks

  2. Rocks are partly identified by origin: • Igneous • Sedimentary • Metamorphic

  3. Sedimentary Rocks

  4. Wow! • Seventy percent of all the rocks on earth are sedimentary rocks.

  5. How are sedimentary rocks formed? • Several Steps • Erosion • Deposition • Compaction • Cementation

  6. Erosion/Weathering • Occurs when running water or wind loosens and carries away fragments of rocks.

  7. Erosion • Erosion is the breakdown of the continents and the land around you.

  8. Erosion is destructive!!! What causes erosion? • Wind, water, heat, cold, rain, waves, grinding ice

  9. Boulders become sand. Mountains are rained on and become hills. The pieces of the mountain become smaller pieces and go down the sides of hills. Weathering and erosion always happen in a downhill direction.

  10. Fire Island Erosion

  11. Erosion

  12. 2. Deposition When the sediments settle out of the wind or water. The Sediment will sink to bottom of lake or ocean

  13. The sediments are deposited into a body of water like you are depositing money in a bank

  14. Deposition

  15. Compaction • It is a process • Thick layers of sediment build up • Layers become heavy and press down on layers beneath • Sediments are pressed together

  16. Compaction

  17. Compaction Diagram

  18. 3. Cementation • Word connection- cement • First Minerals in rock dissolve • Next, cement seeps into spaces between particles • Then, dissolved minerals crystallize and GLUE the particles together

  19. See the cement? See the large pebbles?

  20. Compaction and Cementation • These processes cause loose sediments to turn into rocks • This takes millions of years!!!! • http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/content/visualizations/es0604/es0604page01.cfm?chapter_no=visualization

  21. grains of different sizes settle under the action of gravity. • adding the pressure causes compaction (center). • Cementation (right) is one of the final processes that turns sediment into rock.

  22. Types of Sedimentary Rocks Clastic- formed by rock fragments squeezed together

  23. Conglomerate

  24. Conglomerate is a sedimentary rock • contains rounded particles/pebbles that are cemented together • Has a large range of particle sizes

  25. Organic • made from living things (coral, clams, oysters, snails, shells, skeletons, leaves) • Coal • Limestone(chalk)

  26. Organic Sedimentary Rock with Fossils

  27. Plant fossils

  28. Chemical • when minerals dissolve in a solution and crystallize • Calcite to limestone • Halite to mineral salt • gypsum

  29. In September, 2012, NASA's Mars rover Curiosity discovered an outcrop of conglomerate exposed on the surface of Mars

  30. Stop