About the Novel • The story of Henry Fleming • a “youth” who enlists in the Union army • has romanticized ideas about war • quickly realizes that war is not what he expected • must battle the “rebels” as well as his own doubts & fears
About the Author-Stephen Crane • Born November 1, 1871 in Newark,NJ • 14th child of a Methodist minister. • Started to write stories at the age of eight and at 16 he was writing articles for the New York Tribune. • After high school, spent 1 semester at Lafayette College and another at Syracuse University- was asked to leave
More About the Author • 1891- Moved to New York, worked as a free-lance writer and journalist. • 1893- lived among the poor in the Bowery slums of New York to research his first novel. Maggie: A Girl Of The Streets • 1895- second novel, The Red Badge Of Courage brought him international fame. • Crane's collection of poems, The Black Rider, also appeared in 1895, brought Crane better reporting assignments as a war correspondent in combat areas.
Even More About the Author • 1898- Crane settled in Sussex, England.During these restless years Crane refined his use of realism to expose social ills. • June 5, 1900- Crane died of of tuberculosis, which was worsened by malarial fever he had caught while he was reporting in Cuba.
Style- the unique way an author adapts language to ideas • Stephen Crane’s style was: • Realistic • Naturalistic • Impressionistic
Realism • a literary movement that began during the 1870’s that was prompted by the Civil War • depicts life as it really is • extremely detailed description of the life of ordinary people • more pessimistic view of the world • a reaction against romanticism- a movement where the stories were about extraordinary people& there was always a happy ending. (Think of stories like Cinderella where everybody lives happily ever after)
Naturalism- • era that developed out of realism • people’s lives are shaped by forces of nature and/or society • human beings do not have control over their fate
Impressionism- • originally developed in France during the 1870’s • began in the U.S. in the late 1800’s, early 1900’s • overall impressions of a scene or object; not exact details (like you see in realism & naturalism) • similar to impressionistic paintings-
Waterlillies Realism vs. Impressionism • Realism- clear, detailed • Impressionism - gives the impression,not the clear picture
To fully appreciate The Red Badge of Courage, it helps to have some background knowledge about the American Civil War.
The Civil War 1861-1865
The Union(North) Abraham Lincoln-President of the United States General George McClellan- 1st Commander of Union Army Ulysses S. Grant- 2nd Commander of Union Army
The Confederacy- (South) Jefferson Davis-President of the Confederacy “Stonewall” Jackson-Commander of Confederate Army Robert E. Lee-Commander of Confederate Army
Significant Battles & Events of the Civil War Era
Fort Sumter April 1861- Civil War Begins
July 1861 - Battle of Bull Run • showed both sides that their soldiers needed training • both sides realized that the war would be longer & bloodier than they thought it would be. September1862 -Antietam • 1 day, 23,000 soldiers were either killed or wounded. January 1, 1863 -Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation • all enslaved African Americans living in the Confederacy were freed • focus of the war shifted- Union troops were fighting to end slavery as well as to save the union.
July 1863- Vicksburg • Union - control of the Mississippi River • Cut off the South’s trade with Europe • Cut the Confederacy in half • Afterwards, Grant appointed Commander of the Union Army • December 1862- Fredericksburg • Union army’s worst defeat • June 30 1863- Gettysburg • Confederate troops fought both sides of the Union army • turning point in the war • Confederates would never invade the North again
September 1864 • Union army captured Atlanta November 1864 • Union burned the city Atlanta • Ripped up railroad tracks, burned homes, factories, & barns • Total war- • new type of combat • destroyed food & equipment that the enemy might use • everyone was affected (not just soldiers)
1864 • Lincoln defeats McClellan in the presidential election • April 2, 1865 • Petersburg & Richmond fall to the Union army • April 9, 1865 • Lee surrenders in Appomattox Courthouse
April 14, 1865 (Just 5 days after Lee’s surrender) Lincoln was Assassinated At the Ford Theater in Washington, D.C By John Wilkes Booth- a southern actor, blamed Lincoln for the South’s defeat
After the War • Reconstruction- After years of fighting, the time for the US to: • rebuild the South • reunify the country