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Modern Personality Theories

Modern Personality Theories

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Modern Personality Theories

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  1. Modern Personality Theories Line # 2 of the Graphic Organizer

  2. Objectives • Describe Personality tests (objective scales) • Who is Gordon Allport? • Describe factor analysis • List the Big 5 personality traits (Cattell)

  3. Put people into “TYPES” • Greek ancient times looked to classify behavior and thought types…personalities • Angry ,irritable, hothead=choleric • Slow moving unemotional= phlegmatic • Modern exams little better indicators • Myers Briggs type indicator= businesses, economic, matchmaking, romantic realationships,(match.com) seminars- 2.5 million Americans a year • However little evidence it “works” (little evidence 5 weeks later same results; or key premise in relationships or work

  4. chapter 2 Objective personality scales Answer a series of questions about self “I am easily embarrassed” True or False “I like to go to parties” True or False Assumes that you can accurately report No right or wrong answers From responses, develop picture of you called a personality profile

  5. Types of Objective tests • Needs, values, interests, self-esteem • Standardized Questionnaires that require written responses • Typically include scales on which individuals rate themselves • Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory MMPI (personality disorders) • multidimensional personality questioner MPQ

  6. Clustering traits • Gordon Allport, psychologist in study of personality • 1937 creates Trait Theory • Personal traits= different values for different people • Not equal weight or significant in peoples lives

  7. Traits and trait theory • Trait- characteristic assumed to describe a person across many situations • Allport’s trait theory- Individual traits make people unique • 2 types of traits

  8. Central Traits • Characteristic ways of behaving • Some people look at world as hostile, dangerous place OTOH some look at world fun and frolic • 5-10 ways we behave, dealing with others and reacting to new situations

  9. Secondary Traits • The more changeable aspects of personality • Music preferences • Habits • Casual opinions

  10. Factor analysis: 1 step further= Cattell • Statistical method for analyzing intercorrelations among various measures of scores • Clusters of measures or scores that are strongly correlated are assumed to measure the same underlying trait or ability

  11. Raymond B. Cattell • Studied traits using factor analysis • Like adding water to flour= causes material to form into little balls • Correlated items have some common underlying factor • F.E.= traits assertiveness, willingness to tell jokes in large groups, taking pleasure in meeting new people share common factor of extroversion

  12. Cattell research • 1965- 1973 • Measured humor, intelligence, creativity, dominance, emotional disorders • Identified 16 factors initially, then 6 repeatedly confirmed • Today debate 3-9 for inner core but most agree on big 5

  13. The big 5 traits • Supported by research • Measured by Cattell • Questioners, life experience, observations

  14. chapter 2 Big Five • Openness vs. resistance • Conscientiousness vs. impulsiveness • Extroversion vs. introversion • Agreeableness vs. antagonism • Neuroticism vs. emotional stability

  15. Extroversion vs. introversion • Outgoing or shy • Traits like talkative or silent; sociable or reclusive • Look for limelight or inclined to stay in shadows

  16. Neuroticism (negative emotionality) vs. emotional stability • Anxiety • Impulse control • Anger, guilt, contempt, resentment • Worriers, complainers, defeatists • Even when no major problems

  17. Agreeableness vs. antagonism • Good-natured or irritable • Cooperative or abrasive • Secure or suspicious or jealous • Tendency to have friendly relationships or hostile ones

  18. Conscientiousness vs. impulsiveness • Responsible or undependable • Persevering or quick to give up • Steadfast or fickle • Tidy or careless • Self-discipline or impulsive

  19. Openness to experience vs. resistance to new experience • Curious, imaginative, questioning , creative • Conforming, unimaginative, predictable, uncomfortable with novelty

  20. Summary Time • Personality tests • Allport- cluster • Cattell- big 5