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Chapter 9

Chapter 9 . Communication and Consumer Behavior. Figure 9.1 Basic Communication Model. Message. Channel (Medium). Sender (Source). Receiver (Consumer). Feedback. Elements of the Communications Process. The Message Initiator (the Source) The Sender The Receiver The Medium

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Chapter 9

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  1. Chapter 9 Communication and Consumer Behavior

  2. Figure 9.1 Basic Communication Model Message Channel (Medium) Sender (Source) Receiver (Consumer) Feedback

  3. Elements of the Communications Process • The Message Initiator (the Source) • The Sender • The Receiver • The Medium • The Message • The Target Audience (the Receivers) • Feedback - the Receiver’s Response

  4. Issues in Credibility • Credibility of Informal Sources • Credibility of Formal Sources • Credibility of Spokespersons and Endorsers • Message Credibility

  5. Sleeper Effect The idea that both positive and negative credibility effects tend to disappear after a period of time.

  6. Barriers to Communication Ad Messages • Selective Perception • Psychological Noise Messages Perceived

  7. Figure 9.3 Comprehensive Communication Model Commercial Non-Profit Individual Formal vs. Informal Verbal vs. Nonverbal 1-sided vs. 2-sided Factual vs. Emotional Selective Exposure Individuals Target Audience Intermediary Audience Unintended Audiences Mediated by: Involvement Mood Experience Personal Charac. Encodes Channel (Medium) Message Receiver (Consumer) Sender (Source) Decodes Symbols Pictures Words Images Paid vs. Unpaid Print, Broadcast, Electronic Personal vs. Impersonal Responds Appropriately? Yes No Miscomprehends? Yes Pretests to Ensure Message Will be Received Posttests to Ensure Message Was Received No Feedback

  8. Issues in Designing Persuasive Communications • Communications strategy • Media strategy • Message strategies

  9. Table 9.1 Classifying Consumers by the Magazines They Read “HOME ENGINEERS” “REAL GUYS” “ETHNIC PEWNEPS” Typical Magazines Read Family Circle Good Housekeeping Woman’s Day Guys & Ammo Popular Mechanics Mechanix Illustrated Ebony Essence Jet Primary Sex Female Male Both Income+ $33,000 $39,000 $28,000 Politics Mixed Mixed Democrats Favorite Television Programs “Oprah” “60 Minutes” “Donahue” “Cheers” “America’s Most Wanted” “N.F.L. Live” “Arsenio Hall” “Oprah” “Fresh Prince of Bel Air” Most Frequently Used Products Eye Shadow Face powder Foundation makeup Disposable diapers Bottled water Contact lens products Nail polish Contact lens products Instant coffee

  10. Table 9.1 continued “INFORMATION GRAZERS” “ARMCHAIR ADVENTURERS” Typical Magazines Read People Time Bon Appetit Reader’s Digest Modern Maturity Travel & Leisure Primary Sex Male Both Income $44,000 $35,000 Politics Democrats Republicans Favorite Television Programs “L.A. Law” “Roseanne” “A Current Affair” “Matlock” “60 Minutes” “Wheel of Fortune” Most Frequently Used Products Disposable diapers Powdered drink mixes Frozen desserts Antacids Decaffeinated coffee Instant coffee

  11. Table 9.2 The Righteous, Social and Pragmatic Buyer: A Comparative Analysis Righteous Social Pragmatic Copy Appeals Describe quality. Note achievements, awards, community and environmental positions Offer quality-of-life enhancements, exclusivity. Benefit-driven. Focus on bottom line. Copy Length Wants information. Detailed copy facilitates decisions. Provide short lively copy. Repeat benefits and price. Keep it to the point. Bottom line oriented. Endorsements Highly important when from an independent source. Impressed with credible celebrity endorsements. Not important.

  12. Table 9.2 continued Righteous Social Pragmatic Visuals Show the product fully. Use detail in comparison charts. Show people having fun. Whimsical! Include charts or comparison.Show practical use of product. Pricing Emphasize fair price, value. Full retail price easily accepted. Offer a discount or a special deal. Guarantees Provide strongly worded guarantees. Important, and a decision tie-breaker. Provide strongly worded guarantees. Free Trial “I can test it myself.” “I can show it off!” “I can use it and return it if I don’t like it!” Shipping and Handling Show fairness. Wants costs itemized. Include in price. Ship it free.

  13. Table 9.2 continued Righteous Social Pragmatic Premiums Relate to purchase. Appeal to the ego. Fun. Emphasize giving something free. Time Limits of Offer Don’t’ ever break your word. Helps incite action now. There’s always another deal. Sweepstakes/Contests No great appeal. Dreams of winning and impressing others. Wants something for nothing. Charter Membership Provides some appeal. “I’m the first to have it!” Appeals if there’s a special deal.

  14. Issues in Message Presentation • Message Framing • One-side Versus Two-sided Messages • Comparative Advertising • Order Effects • Repetition

  15. Advertising Appeals • Fear • Humor • Abrasive advertising • Sex in advertising • Audience participation

  16. Table 9.3 Impact of Humor on Advertising • Humor attracts attention. • Humor does not harm comprehension. • Humor is not more effective at increasing persuasion. • Humor does not enhance source credibility. • Humor enhances liking. • Humor that is relevant to the product is superior to humor that is unrelated to the product. • Audience demographic factors affect the response to humorous advertising appeals. • The nature of the product affects the appropriateness of a humorous treatment. • Humor is more effective with existing products than with new products. • Humor is more appropriate for low-involvement products and feeling-oriented products than for high-involvement products.

  17. Figure 9.13 Communication-Based Model Links Company to its Public Interactivity Other Stakeholders Corporate Level Message Sources Cross-Functional Brand Equity (IM) Team Customers Marketing Level Message Sources Cross-Functional IMC Team Marketing Communication Level Message Sources Brand Relationships Brand Value

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