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Ayurveda

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Ayurveda

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  1. Ayurveda

  2. Presented to you by:The Chakras

  3. For our project components, check out our Wikispace: http://nurs3730.wikispaces.com/

  4. Hand-Out

  5. Ayurveda Worlds oldest system of natural medicine Traditional, comprehensive, evolved over 5000 yrs Veda = “knowledge or science” Ayus = “life or lifespan” Ayurveda means... “Science of Life” or “Knowledge of the Lifespan” Deals with the principles of creation, preservation and restoration of health, and the promotion of longevity (Morrison & Svoboda; 1995)

  6. Brief History of Ayurvedic Medicine • Early health-care was considered a part of a spiritual tradition • The early Sages: • deeply devoted to God • received knowledge of Ayurveda through divine revelation • Knowledge transmitted orally & eventually transcribed into books • 600 B.C. two schools of Ayurveda formed: School of Physicians & the School of Surgeons • They established a strong empirical foundation for Ayurveda • Consequently, Ayurveda grew into a respected & widely used system of healing in India (Mishra, Singh & Dagenais, 2001)

  7. Brief History of Ayurvedic Medicine • 400 B.C. Ayurvedic texts translated into Chinese • Many Chinese scholars came to India to study Ayurveda • 800 A.D. Ayurvedic books translated into Arabic • 900 A.D. Islamic physicians quoting Ayurvedic texts • became very influential & contributed to evolution of medicine in Europe • 1600 A.D. Paracelsus, (Renaissance physician) practiced a system of medicine that borrowed heavily from Ayurveda • Significant obstacle for the scientific credibility of Ayurveda was the lack of standardization, adherence to traditional methods for preparing formulas (Mishra, Singh & Dagenais, 2001)

  8. Ayurveda Goal: to integrate & balance the body, mind, spirit. This is believed to help prevent illness & promote wellness Many therapies used in Ayurvedic medicine are also used on their own as CAM—i.e. herbs, massage, & specialized diets (National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine, 2005)

  9. Ayurveda is Holistic • View of the individual as an integrated whole, not a collection of parts • Sees the person as intimately connected to nature and the universe Environment, relationships, job and constitutional type, diet & activities, the weather & seasons are important when considering prevention, diagnosis & treatment MENTAL PHYSICAL EMOTIONAL SPIRITUAL (National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine, 2005)

  10. An Emphasis on Balance • The human body is part of nature – when it runs perfectly as designed, it can be perfectly healthy • Using self-healing and self-regulating, it is trying to be healthy at all times (homeostatic balance) Interference causes imbalance • Wrong diet, poor exercise, negative thinking, stress and fatigue etc. (Morrison & Svoboda; 1995)

  11. The five fundamental elements that make up the universe: space, air, fire, water & earth also make up the human physiology These energies are called...“doshas” (Mishra, Singh, & Dagenais, 2001)

  12. DOSHAS/ DOSAS Structure & Energy • Concept of dosha has two fundamental ideas: • Its being a bioenergetic substance • Its acting as a bioenergetic regulatory physiological force, process, principle (Fontaine, 2005; Ninivaggi, 2008)

  13. Three Doshas vata pitta kapha (Fontaine, 2005)

  14. Vata Elements: air & space Climate:dry & cold Principle: movement Emotions: fearful, anxious, sensitive, nervous, changeable Systems Most Affected by Vata Imbalances: CNS & colon Symptoms of Vata Imbalance: flatulence, back pain, circulation problems, dry skin, fearfulness, arthritis, constipation and CNS disorders (Fontaine, 2005; Ninivaggi, 2008)

  15. Pitta Elements: fire & water Climate: hot & moist Principle: transformation Emotions: hate, anger, intolerance, impatience, jealousy, humour, intelligence, warm-heartedness. Systems of Pitta Imbalance: skin disorders, acidity, sun-sensitivity, premature hair loss or loss of hair colour, diarrhea (Fontaine, 2005; Ninivaggi, 2008)

  16. Kapha Elements:water & earth Climate:cold & damp Principle:cohesion Emotions: stubbornness, greed, jealousy, possessiveness, lethargy, reliability & methodical behaviour, kindliness, motherliness Systems of Kapha Imbalance: congestion, bronchial/nasal discharge, sluggish, digestion, nausea, slow mental responses, idleness, desire for sleep, excess weight, fluid retention (Fontaine, 2005; Ninivaggi, 2008)

  17. Ayurveda & Transcultural Nursing Perspectives Leininger’s Modes of Action & Decisions • Culture Care Preservation/Maintenance Nursing Goal: identify practices based on care preservation & maintenance for healthy outcomes b. Culture Care Accommodation/Negotiation Nursing Goal: accommodating of herbs & special diets Awareness of meditation practices c. Culture Care Repatterning/Restructuring Nursing Goal: awareness of practices & legal issues (Larson-Presswalla, 1994)

  18. Ayurveda & Newman’s Theory of Health as Expanding Consciousness • Definition of Consciousness - Interaction With Environment • PERSON • Imbedded in & interacting with the larger energy system known as the universe • Known for their ways of being, patterns of energy, & distinctness from others • ENVIRONMENT • Human beings are related to the larger universe, always in interaction with the environment • Consciousness is a manifestation of an evolving pattern of • person-environment interaction • (Newman & Moch, 1991; Pharris & Endo, 2007)

  19. Ayurveda & Newman’s Theory of Health as Expanding Consciousness • HEALTH • Incorporates disease as a manifestation of the evolving pattern (information) of the whole person in interaction with the environment • NURSING • Goal: to utilize their power that is within as they evolve toward higher level of consciousness • (Newman & Moch, 1991; Pharris & Endo, 2007)

  20. Application to Nursing Practice • Patient Safety • Ayurvedic Medications http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ahc-asc/media/advisories-avis/_2008/2008_73-eng.php • Patient Education • Nurse Education • Determining Dosha types and reviewing lifestyles (Narayanasamy & Narayanasamy, 2006)

  21. Personal Background of the Practitioner • RAKESH R. MODI (Ayurveda Guru) B.A.M.S., D.Ac., Dr.Ac., M.Ac., M.Ac.F., C.A.H.P. • Ayurvedic Physician & Lecturer • Certified Holistic Practitioner • PanchaKarma Specialist • Quality Assurance Person (Q.A.P.) • Co-Founder & Director of ICAP Inc. (International Council of Ayurvedic Physician Inc.) • Director of IIACM Inc. (Institute of Ayurveda & Complimentary Medicines Inc.)

  22. Personal Background of the Practitioner • RAKESH R. MODI (Ayurveda Guru) B.A.M.S., D.Ac., Dr.Ac., M.Ac., M.Ac.F., C.A.H.P. • Family Tradition - 4th generation practitioner • Father emigrated to Canada & opened practice in Toronto • Dr. Modi continued with practice: expanded & modernized it • Brought a modern influence to an ancient system

  23. Training / Licensing Requirements for Ayurveda Training is accredited and licensed, but specific to individual, private schools / institutions that certify individual practitioners.(RNAO, 2009; AMANA, 2009)

  24. Ayurveda & MindBodySpirit Relationship Knowledge Gained from the Interview: • Lifestyle: • Plays an important part in maintaining mind-body-spirit relationship • Food and Diet: • What you eat will affect your physical and mental health • Work and Leisure: • The way we handle our bodies will affect the mind-body-spirit relationship • Our body & mind are interconnected & inseparable

  25. Ayurveda & MindBodySpirit Relationship • Dr. Modi’s statements were in line with the research literature • Food and Diet: • What we eat plays a big part in determining health • Brings strength, complexion, happiness & longevity without disturbing the equilibrium of dhatus (tissues) & doshas of the body • Work and Leisure: • These are activities as opportunities to counter any imbalances & nurture the mental, emotional & inner aspects • Take Home Point: The way we handle our body will ultimately affect our mind & spirit  (Morrison & Svoboda, 1995; Sharma, 2009; Krishnamurthy & Telles, 2007)

  26. Ayurveda & MindBodySpirit Relationship Knowledge Gained from Literature: • Holistic knowledge: • the whole range of life, inner, and outer • Individual as an integrated whole: • not just a collection of parts (eyes, lungs, heart) • Each and every person is unique, with their own individualistic mind, body constitution & life circumstances (Morrison & Svoboda, 1995; Anselmo & Brooks, 1996; Garodia et. al, 2007; Mishra et. al, 2001; Lenora, 2009; NCCAM, 2005; Narayanasamy; 2006; Krishnamurthy & Telles, 2007; Larson-Presswalla; 1994)

  27. Ayurveda & MindBodySpirit Relationship Knowledge Gained from Literature: • Body uses its innate self healing as a self regulating ability for a perfect homeostatic balance • Doshas work together to produce strong healthy tissues. • Doshas are balanced if the mind & body are in harmony producing emotional & mental stabilities. • Simply, what we eat and do each day & how we think & feel are the influences in maintaining a good body-mind-spirit relationship (Morrison & Svoboda, 1995; Anselmo & Brooks, 1996; Garodia et. al, 2007; Mishra et. al, 2001; Lenora, 2009; NCCAM, 2005; Narayanasamy; 2006; Krishnamurthy & Telles, 2007; Larson-Presswalla; 1994)

  28. Ayurveda & MindBodySpirit Relationship Knowledge Gained from Literature: • Dr. Vasant teaches that certain negative emotions are connected with specific body muscles & organs (Morrison & Svoboda, 1995)

  29. Dr. Modi’s Comments & Our Assessment of Ayurvedic Research Interview comments: • The practice of Ayurveda • Diet • Adjustment to lifestyle & workstyles • Education  • Ayurveda Diagnosis • Initial assessment through observation • Pulse diagnosis  • Ayurveda Treatment • Panchakarma (Five actions of cleansing) • Shiro Dhara (Oil dripping on forehead) • Mental health and Ayurveda • Mental Health and Addictions department collaboration on research about mental health and Ayurveda • Extensive research being conducted in Ayurveda and mental illness

  30. Dr. Modi’s Comments & Our Assessment of Ayurvedic Research Literature on Ayurveda: • Imbalance in mental doshas (satogun, rajogun & tamogun) & body doshas (vata, pita & kapha) causes major illness. • Management includes: • Clinical examination • Diagnosis – essentially done by observation, touch & questioning • Dietary Interventions • Lifestyle Interventions • Treatment (Mishra, 2001)

  31. Dr. Modi’s Comments & Our Assessment of Ayurvedic Research Literature on Ayurveda: • Clinical examination consists of a 8-point diagnosis: • Pulse diagnosis • Urine, stool, tongue, voice & body sounds • Eye, skin, & total body appearance examination • Digestive system & physical health examination • Additional examinations include digestive capacity, personal habits & resilience (Mishra, 2001)

  32. Dr. Modi’s Comments & Our Assessment of Ayurvedic Research Literature on Ayurveda: • Treatment • Panchakarma (Cleansing) • Palliation • Dietary & lifestyle interventions • Herbal dietary supplements • Yoga • Massage • Education (Mishra, 2001)

  33. Dr. Modi’s Comments & Our Assessment of Ayurvedic Research Literature on Ayurveda: • Diet • Vital to health management • According to: • Your Primary Dosha • Season • Climate • Age & Sex • Qualities of Food (Mishra, 2001)

  34. Dr. Modi’s Comments & Our Assessment of Ayurvedic Research Literature on Ayurveda: Ayurveda & Mental Health  • Study on treatment of schizophrenia with Ayurvedic medicine • Treatment of depression with Ayurvedic medicine • Shirodhara (dripping oil on the forehead) • Anxiety • Altered state of consciousness • ADHD (Agarwal et al., 2009; Krishnamurthy & Telles, 2007; Ohja, Kumar, & Rai, 2007; Uebaba et al., 2008)

  35. Payment Structure/Fees • Ayurvedic Consultation $115 • Follow up consultation $50 • Sliding Scale of Treatment & Payment options • Diamond / Golden / Silver Packages • Panchakarma - rejuvenation & cleansing • $ 325 (+3hr session) - $ 175 (1½ hr session) • Shirodhara - flowing stream of medicated warm oil on forehead (third eye) • $ 120 (1½ hr session ) - $ 30 (15min) • Abhayanga (Ayurvedic Healing Massage) • $190 (2 hours) - $ 45 (½ hour) http://www.ayurvedtoronto.com/services.htm

  36. Ayurveda & Traditional Chinese Medicine Similarities • both conceptualize essence of life in terms of the ebb & flow of energy • focus on the patient rather than the disease • aim to promote health & enhance quality of life • symptoms mean very little by themselves • examines every person holistically & by their body type to properly form diagnoses • many overlapping herbs used in both traditions (Patwardhan, Warude, D., Pushpangadan, P., & Bhatt, 2005)

  37. Ayurveda & Traditional Chinese Medicine Differences • TCM diagnoses patients based on to the Ying & Yang Theory • practitioners see the body as a unified whole with opposing aspects • every element, function & feeling has a complementary opposite • view illness as a result of Yin & Yang imbalance • Ayurveda concerned with achieving balance between the three doshas • views the body as a series of energy channels • disease is seen as an impairment to the flow of energy through these channels (Patwardhan, Warude, D., Pushpangadan, P., & Bhatt, 2005)

  38. Ayurveda & Reiki • Both approaches grounded in the belief of life energies • Reiki is a purely energy based therapy • Ayurveda concerned with seven major Chakras (Miles & True, 2003)

  39. Ayurveda & Aromatherapy • Utilize many of the same raw materials • essential oils, absolutes, phytoncides, herbal distillates, infusions, carrier oils • Both apply the principle of synergism of essential oils with the body to heal the mind, improve cognitive functioning & overall health • Both systems believe the nose to be the gateway to the brain & consciousness (van der Watt, & Janca, 2008)

  40. How is Ayurveda perceived and its relevance to our caring-healing praxis?

  41. Hands-On! Ayurvedic Methods & Techniques • Video Demonstrations • Class Exercise • What’s your dosha? • How to balance your dosha?

  42. References Agarwal, V., Abhijnhan, A., & Raviraj, P. (2009). Ayurvedic medicine for schizophrenia. The Cochrane Collaboration, 4, 1-35. Anselmo, P., & Brooks, J. (1996). Ayurvedic Secrets to Longevity and Total Health. London: Prentice Hall. Biswas, T., & Mukherjee, B. (2003). Plant medicines of Indian origin for wound healing activities: A review. The International Journal of Lower Extremity Wounds, 2(1), 25-39. Fontaine, K.L. (2005). Complementary & alternative therapies for nursing practice. (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Education Inc. Garodia, P., Ichikawa, H., Malani, N., Sethi, G., & Aggarwal, B. (2007). From Ancient Medicine to Modern Medicine: Ayurvedic Concepts of Health and Their Role in Inflammation and Cancer. Journal of the Society for Integrative Oncology, 5(1), 1-16. Krishnamurthy, M., & Telles, S. (2007). Assessing depression following two ancient Indian interventions: Effects of yoga and Ayurveda on older adults in a residential home. Journal of Gerontological Nursing 33(2), 17-23. Larson-Presswalla, J. (1994). Insights Into Eastern Health Care: Some Transcultural Nursing Perspectives. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 5 (1), 21-24.

  43. References Lenora, S. (1968). Ayurveda Medicine: The Strange and Fascinating Tale of the Art and Science of Indian Medicine. Clinical Pediatrics, 7, 239-242. Miles, P., & True, G. (2003). Reiki: Review of a Biofield Therapy. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 9(2), 62–72. Mishra, L. (2001). Healthcare and disease management in Ayurveda. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 7(2), 44-50. Mishra, L., Singh, B.B., & Dagenais, S. (2001). Ayurveda: A Historical Perspective And Principles of the Traditional Healthcare System in India. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 7(2), 36-42. Narayanasamy, A. & Narayanasamy, M. (2006). Ayurvedic Medicine: An Introduction for Nurses. British Journal of Nursing, 15(21), 1185-1190. National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. (2005). Ayurvedia Medicine: An Introduction. Retrieved October 23, 2009, from http://nccam.nih.gov/health/ayurveda/introduction.htm Newman, M. A., & Moch, S. D. (1991). Life Patterns of Persons with Coronary Heart Disease. Nursing Science Quarterly, 4(4), 161-167.

  44. References Ninivaggi, F.J. (2008). Ayurveda: A comprehensive guide to traditional Indian medicine for the West. Praeger Publishers, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group Inc. Ohja, N., Kumar, A., & Rai, M. (2007). Clinical study on the role of Ayurvedic compound (ManasNiyamak Yoga) and Shirodhara in the management of ADHD in children. National Institute of Ayurveda. Patwardhan, B., Warude, D., Pushpangadan, P., & Bhatt, N. (2005). Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese Medicine: A Comparative Overview. eCAM, 2(4), 465–473. Pharris, M. D., & Endo, E. (2007). Flying Free: The Evolving Nature of Nursing Practice Guided by the Theory of Health as Expanding Consciousness. Nursing Science Quarterly, 20(2), 136-140 Sharma, V. (2009). Diets based on Ayurvedic constitution-potential for weight management. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 15(1), 44-47. Uebaba et al., (2008). Psychoneuroimmunologic effects of Ayurvedic oil-dripping treatment. Journal of Alternative and Complimentary Medicine, 14, 1189-1198. van der Watt, G., & Janca, A. (2008). Aromatherapy in nursing and mental health care. Contemporary Nurse, 30 (1), 69-75.