ANCIENT GREECE • Movement from tribes/clans to city-states • “polis”= fundamental political unit in Greek society; made up of a city and its surrounding countryside; acropolis= center of government and often center of the city • Greek city-states and the rise of Western government: • monarchy • aristocracy • oligarchy • direct democracy
ANCIENT GREECE • Tyrants-not always bad? • Athens and Democracy: • Draco’s law= equality under the law; what’s the bad news? (draconian) • Solon’s reforms (4 class division-what are the good and bad parts?) • Cleisthenes and the Council of 500 • Who could be a citizen?
ANCIENT GREECE • Life in Athens: • Boys given an education, as they were expected to hold office as a citizen one day • Girls received no formal education, just household training from mother • Private tutors or schools • Wealthy girls would marry their father’s choice at 15 • Peasant girls would choose a husband from the field • Boys would train for future jobs after school • They entered the military after graduation and then went onto careers such as businessmen or Olympic athletes
ANCIENT GREECE • Sparta: • a military state • 725 BC= conquer Messenians • Helots • Helot revolt leads to change in Spartan society • Sparta becomes a military force • Assembly elects officials, Council of Elders (30 men) proposed laws for the assembly, 2 kings lead military • citizens, non-citizens, helots = class division
ANCIENT GREECE • Sparta: • Spartan society is vastly different from Athens • Spartan childbirth • Age 7- boys taken from mothers to begin military training • Hazing and discipline Ex: stealing food • Age 12- thrown out of barracks; those who survive return a year later to participate in war games • Age 20- test for citizenship • Age 30- allowed to marry and live with family • Age 60- retired from military service
ANCIENT GREECE • Sparta: • Lives of women • “Come back with your shield or on it”- Spartan wedding relationships • female independence