You can't build a reputation on what you're going to do. Chapter 20/21 in textbook Henry Ford 1920's America……..
The spread of Communism was perceived as a threat to America (The Red Scare) Communism - economic, political system, single-party government - ruled by dictator - no private property Fear of Communism
Red Scare fed fear of foreigners, ruined reputations & wrecked lives The two most famous victims were Italian immigrants Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti Shoemaker & fish peddler who evaded the draft during WWI (Anarchists) Sacco and Vanzetti
A Time of Labor Unrest • Government didn’t allow strikes in wartime - 1919 over 3,000 strikes • Employers were against raises& unions; - Labeled strikers as Communists
Enabled workers to live farther from jobs - Led to urban sprawl (spread of cities) Auto industry became economic base for some cities Boosted oil industry Late 1920s - 1 car for every 5 Americans 1927 – The Model A replaced the Model T Enabled customers to order a variety of colors Traveled faster & smoother The Impact of the Automobile
1920s were prosperous times for America 1920 to 1929 – Average annual income rose over 35%, from $522 to $705 People tired of sacrificing Ready to spend money New inventions - Refrigerator - Vacuum cleaner - Electric stove - Wrist watch America’s Standard of Living Soars
Radio was most powerful communications medium of 1920s Connected the whole country Networks provided shared national experience - Enabled people to hear the news as it happened Radio Comes of Age
Section 4The Harlem Renaissance African-American ideas, politics, art, literature, and music flourish in Harlem and elsewhere in the United States.
Racial tensions escalated in North Summer 1919 – About 25 urban race riots took place African-Americans continue to migrate in the 1920s African-American Voices in the 1920s
1900 - National Association for the Advancement of Colored People founded (NAACP) - Protested racial violence - W.E.B. Du Bois led parade of 10,000 men in New York to protest violence African-American Goals
NAACP leader James Weldon Johnson fought for civil rights legislation - NAACP antilynching campaign led to drop in number of lynchings African-American Goals
Many African Americans migrated to Harlem - Neighborhood on the Upper West Side of New York’s Manhattan Island 1920s – Harlem became world’s largest black urban area - People from U.S. & Caribbean Harlem Renaissance - A literary & artistic movement celebrating African-American culture - Expressed pride in African-American experience The Harlem Renaissance Flowers in New York
African Americans and Jazz • Jazz born in early 20th century New Orleans • Spread across U.S. • Became the most popular form of music for dancing • Trumpeter Louis Armstrong made personal expression key part of jazz - Most influential musician in jazz history
Langston Hughes • James Mercer Langston Hughes, (February 1, 1902 – May 22, 1967) was an American poet, novelist, playwright, short story writer, and columnist. He was one of the earliest innovators of the new literary art form jazz poetry. Hughes is best-known for his work during the Harlem Renaissance. He is also best known for what he wrote about the Harlem Renaissance, "Harlem was in vogue."
Irving Berlin • Irving Berlin (May 11, 1888 – September 22, 1989) was an American composer and lyricist widely considered one of the greatest songwriters in history.
TIN PAN ALLEY • Tin pan alley is the name given to the collection of new york city-centered music publishers and songwriters who dominated the popular music of the united states in the late 19th century and early 20th century. • The start of tin pan alley is usually dated to about 1885, when a number of music publishers set up shop in the same district of Manhattan. The end of tin pan alley is less clear cut. Some date it to the start of the great depression in the 1930s when the phonograph and radio supplanted sheet music as the driving force of american popular music, while others consider tin pan alley to have continued into the 1950s when earlier styles of american popular music were upstaged by the rise of rock & roll.