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Chapter 7

Chapter 7. Strategic Management. OUTLINE. Strategic Management (SM) Defined/Importance SM Process Types of Strategies Organizational Corporate Business Unit Competitive Functional Customer Service Innovation. Strategic Management.

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Chapter 7

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  1. Chapter 7 Strategic Management

  2. OUTLINE • Strategic Management (SM) Defined/Importance • SM Process • Types of Strategies • Organizational • Corporate • Business Unit • Competitive • Functional • Customer Service • Innovation

  3. Strategic Management • The set of managerial decisions and actionsthat determines the long-run performanceof an organization

  4. Why Strategic Management Is Important • higher organizational performance • requires that managers examine and adapt to business environment changes • coordinates diverse organizational units to focus on organizational goals • Key to the managerial decision-making process

  5. External Analysis • opportunities • threats Identify the organization's Formulate Implement Evaluate SWOT Analysis current mission, goals, Strategies Strategies Results and strategies Internal Analysis • strengths • weaknesses Exhibit 7.1 The Strategic Management Process

  6. Strategic Management Process • Step 1: Identify the Organization’s Current Mission, Objectives, and Strategies • Mission: the firm’s reason for being • The scope of its products and services • Goals: the foundation for further planning • Measurable performance targets

  7. Exhibit 7.2 Components of a Mission Statement • Customers: Who are the organization’s customers? • Products or services: What are the organization’s major products or services? • Markets: Where does the organization compete geographically? • Technology: How technologically current is the organization? • Concern for survival growth, and profitability: Is the organization committed to growth and financial stability? • Philosophy: What are the organization’s basic beliefs, values, aspirations, and ethical priorities? • Self-concept: What is the organization’s major competitive advantage and core competencies? • Concern for public image: How responsive is the organization to societal and environmental concerns? • Concern for employees: Does the organization consideremployees a valuable asset? Source:Based on F. David, Strategic Management, 8th ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001), pp. 65–66.

  8. Strategic Management Process (cont’d) • Step 2: Conduct an External Analysis • The environmental scanning of specific and general environments • Focuses on identifying opportunities and threats • Step 3: Conduct an Internal Analysis • Assessing organizational resources, capabilities, activities, and culture: • Strengths (core competencies) create value for the customer and strengthen the competitive position of the firm • Weaknesses (things done poorly or not at all) can place the firm at a competitive disadvantage. • Steps 2 and 3 combined are called a SWOT analysis. (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats)

  9. Strategic Management Process (cont’d) • Step 4: Formulate Strategies • Develop and evaluate strategic alternatives • Select appropriate strategies for all levels in the organization that provide relative advantage over competitors • Match organizational strengths to environmental opportunities • Correct weaknesses and guard against threats • Step 5: Implement Strategies • Implementation: effectively fitting organizational structure and activities to the environment • The environment dictates the chosen strategy; effective strategy implementation requires an organizational structure matched to its requirements • Step 6: Evaluate Results • How effective have strategies been? • What adjustments, if any, are necessary?

  10. Types of Organizational Strategies • Corporate-level Strategies • Top management’s overall plan for the entire organization and its strategic business units • Types of Corporate Strategies • Growth: expansion into new products and markets • Stability: maintenance of the status quo • Retrenchment: addresses organizational weaknesses that are leading to performance declines • Corporate portfolio analysis: involves a number of businesses; guides resource allocation

  11. Group Exercise • Get into small groups of 3 • Think of a local business you know of...and develop a brief SWOT Analysis for that business as if it was your own (12 minutes) • Strengths • Weaknesses • Opportunities • Threats

  12. Corporate Multibusiness Level Corporation Business Strategic Strategic Strategic Level Business Unit 1 Business Unit 2 Business Unit 3 Functional Research and Human Manufacturing Marketing Finance Level Development Resources Exhibit 7.4 Levels of Organizational Strategy

  13. Corporate-Level Strategies • Growth Strategy • Seeking to increase the organization’s business by expansion into new products and markets • Types of Growth Strategies • Concentration • Vertical integration • Horizontal integration • Diversification

  14. Corporate-Level Strategies (cont’d) • Stability Strategy • A strategy that seeks to maintain the status quo to deal with the uncertainty of a dynamic environment, when the industry is experiencing slow- or no-growth conditions, or if the owners of the firm elect not to grow for personal reasons

  15. Corporate-Level Strategies (cont’d) • Retrenchment Strategy • Reduces the company’s activities or operations • Retrenchment strategies include: • Cost reductions • Layoffs • Closing underperforming units • Closing entire product lines or services

  16. Corporate-Level Strategies (cont’d) • Corporate Portfolio Analysis • BCG Matrix • Developed by the Boston Consulting Group • Considers market share and industry growth rate • Classifies firms as: • Cash cows: low growth rate, high market share • Stars: high growth rate, high market share • Question marks: high growth rate, low market share • Dogs: low growth rate, low market share

  17. High Low Low Anticipated Growth Rate Market Share Question Marks Stars Sell off or Heavily invest turn into stars Cash Dogs Cows Sell off or Milk for cash liquidate High Exhibit 7.5 The BCG Matrix

  18. Business-Level Strategy • Business-Level Strategy • A strategy that seeks to determine how an organization should compete in each of its SBUs (strategic business units)

  19. Five Competitive Forces • Threat of New Entrants • The ease or difficulty with which new competitors can enter an industry • Threat of Substitutes • The extent to which switching costs and brand loyalty affect the likelihood of customers adopting substitute products and services • Bargaining Power of Buyers • The degree to which buyers have the market strength to hold sway over and influence competitors in an industry • Bargaining Power of Suppliers • The relative number of buyers to suppliers and threats from substitutes and new entrants affect the buyer-supplier relationship • Current Rivalry • Intensity among rivals increases when industry growth rates slow, demand falls, and product prices descend

  20. Competitive Strategies • Cost Leadership Strategy • Seeking to attain the lowest total overall costs relative to other industry competitors • Differentiation Strategy • Attempting to create a unique and distinctive product or service for which customers will pay a premium • Focus Strategy • Using a cost or differentiation advantage to exploit a particular market segment rather than a larger market • Stuck in the Middle • Organizations that are unable to develop a cost or differentiation advantage

  21. Functional-Level Strategy • Functional-level strategies support the business-level strategy • i.e., Marketing, human resources, research and development, and finance all support the business-level strategy • Problems occur when employees or customers don’t understand a company’s strategy Customer Service Strategies • Giving the customers what they want • Communicating effectively with them • Providing employees with customer service training

  22. Innovation Strategies • Possible Events • Radical breakthroughs in products • Application of existing technology to new uses • Strategic Decisions about Innovation • Basic research • Product development • Process innovation • First Mover • An organization that brings a product innovation to market or uses a new process innovation

  23. Thanks

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